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AvtoVAZ And Toxicity Standards: Breathing Exercises


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Video: AvtoVAZ And Toxicity Standards: Breathing Exercises

Video: AvtoVAZ And Toxicity Standards: Breathing Exercises
Video: Stop #Covid19 | Breathing Exercise Sessions 21 | Chair Breathing 2023, March
AvtoVAZ And Toxicity Standards: Breathing Exercises
AvtoVAZ And Toxicity Standards: Breathing Exercises



If there is no need to enter foreign markets, I think our cars would now have been saving the sky without a twinge of conscience. And what, the country is huge, a little people - I do not want to breathe. But life made me: in 2005 we swung to Euro-2, in 2008 - to Euro-3. Today in Russia the Euro-4 ball rules, but AvtoVAZ has to run ahead of the engine - Euro-5 is already raging in Europe.


Ideally, the air-fuel mixture should be burned completely, and demineralized water should be poured from the exhaust pipe. But so far, the processes in the engine cylinders are far from perfect. Bringing them to mind is one of the directions of progress. The main task is filigree dosing of fuel. So there was a distributed fuel injection (Euro-2), and then an on-board diagnostic system (Euro-3), supplemented by a second (diagnostic) oxygen sensor and an uneven road sensor. The latter helped the electronics to separate the vibrations caused by defects in the coating from those caused by misfires. Later this element was abandoned, replacing it with a program based on statistics.

A distinctive feature of Euro-4 is the electronic gas pedal. This is not just a fashionable bauble, which also allows you to save on a steel cable and wire - everything is much more complicated. The mechanical drive is indifferent to the attempts of artificial intelligence - the latter has to adapt. That is, the driver presses the pedal, setting the volume of filling the engine cylinders with air, and the control system selects the values of the remaining parameters. Such regulation is called consistent and is famous for inevitable errors: too little time is left to implement the decisions made. The electronic pedal is the closest relative of a computer mouse. With its help, the driver only expresses its wishes to the control system. How feasible they are is decided by the results of a simultaneous (parallel) comparison with a number of other parameters. Time gains result in improved driving and environmental qualities (mass fuel consumption decreased by 4–5% in the driving cycle).


The second way to please the environment is to burn out unburned residues outside the engine in a special device called a catalytic converter. There is no open flame inside - the redox process takes place on a grate containing precious metals as a catalyst. For an effective reaction, the composition of the air-fuel mixture must be maintained within a fairly narrow framework. This is monitored by an oxygen sensor installed at the input to the converter. For the first time “frets” in this configuration appeared with the introduction of Euro-1.

Euro-3 stimulated the appearance of a collector - a receiving pipe with an integrated converter. The idea is simple: the closer the device is to the motor, the faster it warms up to operating temperature.

Euro-4 was marked by a cheaper neutralizer - platinum was replaced by palladium and rhodium. Improving the catalytic coating formula has halved the amount of non-ferrous metals used.

Euro 5 is still beautiful far away for Russia. But for export, the plant is forced to keep up with Europe. Among other things, this standard requires increased reliability from a toxicity reduction system: mileage with guaranteed compliance with the norms was increased from 100 thousand to 160 thousand km. They coped with the task: in 2010, AvtoVAZ successfully homologated the Priora, Kalina and Lada 4 × 4 cars for compliance with this standard. But the restless Europeans once again raised the bar: since 2012, they introduced a higher degree of environmental protection - Euro-5 +. Our engineers completed the necessary developments and homologated Grant for compliance with the requirements of a toughened standard.

Legal requirements in the field of ecology:

Legislative requirements in the field of ecology



An alarm light in combination with error code 422 indicates a loss of converter efficiency. There may be several reasons.

- Use of fuel with anti-knock additives.

Lead or other elements, together with the exhaust gases entering the neutralizer, create a film on the active surface that reduces the efficiency of the device.

- Misfire in the cylinders (defects in candles, coils, wires, etc.).

The operating temperature in the converter reaches 950 ºC. But a fresh batch, not burnt in a defective cylinder, pretty much warms up the structure. At 1150º, the grill begins to sinter, gradually losing operability, and finally collapses at 1200º. There is protection against such a nuisance in the control system, but it is effective only in the basic engine operating modes, up to revolutions of no higher than 4, 500. So sharp rebuffs, designed to wake an idle cylinder, cause the converter to burn out in less than a minute.

- Defects in the fuel system leading to lean mixture.

Excessive wear on the pump and nozzles, clogged fuel filter.

- Mechanical problems affecting the combustion process.

Phase shift (timing belt leaping onto the tooth), compression reduction, overall engine wear.

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