An ideal option for any fleet is the operation of equipment on one grade of engine, transmission and hydraulic oil, manufactured by one manufacturer, whose dealer delivers timely deliveries of the product needed by the carrier in the required volumes. However, in real life, things often turn out differently. Fierce competition among manufacturers of lubricants, the constant process of redistributing the fuel and lubricants market and the spheres of influence of oil refineries, the entry of new players who are trying their way through the tried and tested dumping method, generates a large number of attractive proposals for lubricants and, as a result, leads to rotation suppliers.
Who made the best offer in terms of price / quality ratio rules the ball. The competition among oil producers was especially acute during the crisis, the consequences of which are still felt by many carriers and sellers of fuels and lubricants. A sharp drop in the market, caused by a reduction in traffic, forced them to hold onto successful fleets and squeeze competitors out of repair areas of successful companies by all known means. There are a lot of cases when oils were offered to the carrier with a meager wrap, or even without it at all - just to take a place. Is it any wonder that, in search of lower operating costs, auto enterprises often switch from one oil to another, from another to third, and so on.
The change of brand and supplier of oils is also associated with the emergence of various kinds of complaints about the lubricant. Note, not always reasonable and objective. For example, a number of motor transport enterprises are forced to constantly search for new oil due to suddenly more frequent cases of turbine or even engine failure. True, oil is not always to blame for this. Most often, the responsibility for the breakdown of equipment lies entirely with fuel of inadequate quality and illiterate repair service employees who did not notice the growth of soot under the valve covers or the coking of the fuel injector nozzles on time. It is impossible not to notice that the nozzle began to pour. But the fact that the problems with the cars began when purchasing the next batch of fuel or changing the gas station, for some reason it is customary to keep silent. Much easier to blame everything on oil, replace its supplier and brand, expect a miracle from a new product.
Vadim Babushkin, deputy technical service director of Motorcade 1417
- We believe that when changing the manufacturer and brand of oil, it should be replaced completely and not mixed. I will explain why. The oils that we use correspond to the permit sheet for a particular brand of bus. Manufacturers - the mass. But at the same time, the base oil, which is approximately 80% of the total volume, is almost the same for almost all manufacturers. The formula is not his secret. But each manufacturer has their own additives (about 20%), and they are a trade secret, since it is in them that lies the “secret of success” of the brand. And these very additives, if you mix the oils, can come into conflict. We do not know exactly whether they will enter, but we prefer not to take risks. Of course, in an extreme situation, if an emergency loss of oil occurs, it is better to top up any than to go without it, but when you get to the service station, it is better to completely replace the oil. Competent sources in this case: service information of a recommendation plan provided by oil producers.
The change in the oil supplier, as well as its brand, is often associated with the purchase of new equipment, which should be operated on lubricants having certain factory tolerances indicated on the label next to the standard data - quality class, viscosity, etc. The previous supplier of products with tolerances might not have been, since their receipt is a long and very expensive process. At the same time, competent engineers who monitor global trends in the development and production of lubricants are well aware that modern products related to the top line overlap, and sometimes with a significant margin, the level of properties indicated on the barrel. And if so, then the requirements of the automaker will most likely correspond to the oil. It turns out that changing the supplier again did not make any sense or practical benefit. That is, instead of changing a time-tested partner, it is necessary to purchase from him a top product that has the highest qualities and properties, does not have sulfur in its composition, which can harm particulate filters, catalysts, etc.
Andrey Ivanov, Head of City Express Transportation Department
- The need to top up oils during the normal operation of serviceable equipment is rare, as are the cases of adding “foreign” oil to the “regular” one. Of course, a lot depends on the operating conditions of the machines, as well as the likelihood of force majeure. So, if we are talking about heavy mining dump trucks - a technique that works 24 hours a day, seven days a week, whose motors are "muffled" only when a car is set up for maintenance, then due to the severe burning and (or) leakage of the lubrication system (seals, oil seals)) it may be necessary to top up the oil during the operation of the equipment in order to avoid oil starvation of the internal combustion engine. Since the demand for oils for these motor transport enterprises is high and there is a possibility of disruption of the supply of fuels and lubricants, there may also be cases when “non-native” oil is added to the refill. Nothing wrong with that, especially when it comes to mineral oils, I don't see.
The base of all oils, with the exception of special oils, is the same - this is the so-called base oil, which makes up from 60 to 70% of the volume, the rest are additives, which are also almost identical in their component composition. Only the percentage of the content of an element is different. All the stories about "curled" oil and precipitated sediment, I attribute to the category of tales. In the worst case, the interaction of additive packages of various products will result in a deterioration in the properties of the oil. For example, when mineral oil was added to semisynthetics. But even when mixing products with a different basis, the quality level of the resulting oil will be determined by the initial properties of the mixed lubricants.
Mixing oils specifically to somehow “attach” illiquid residues does not make economic sense, unless this is done so as not to replace the entire volume of oil before the next maintenance due to a drop in its level in the crankcase as a result of waste or leak through seals. It is unlikely that a single refill of oil from another manufacturer will affect the resource of the units. However, it is worth remembering that when mixing oils of various viscosity parameters, the resulting lubricant may not be suitable for the operation of equipment in cold regions, since the high viscosity of the “mix” makes it difficult to cold start the engine. At the same time, for “hot cars” operating around the clock, the deterioration of the viscosity parameter is not so relevant. Worst of all, if as a result of mixing the tribological properties of the oil decrease. However, they are unlikely to fall below a critical level. In conclusion, I will give an example from my own observations in one of the iron ore quarries of the middle strip of the Russian Federation, which I managed to visit: in situations of shortage of one grade of motor oil, Lukoil and Shell oils were mixed. At the same time, the resource of dump truck motors that worked on the “mix” did not decrease. ICE emergency exits for this reason also did not occur.
However, it is not without reason that large trading companies invest decent money in the training of their managers, sending them to refresher courses and, in particular, sales efficiency. Believe me, every successful seller is a subtle psychologist who can easily convince his interlocutor that his product is the best. As a result, after several years of the carrier’s work under pressure from the “most profitable” offer in the market of fuels and lubricants and the constant transition from one product to another, stocks of oil that are diverse in both brands and volumes are accumulated in the warehouse. Confirmation of the relevance of the raised topic is a letter to the editorial office from LLC ATP Yuzhkuzbassugol.
Note that similar problems exist with carriers operating in relatively prosperous regions of central Russia from the point of view of providing lubricants. The problem of the “heterogeneous population” arises not only in large, but also in medium-sized and also small enterprises engaged in various sectors of the transport services market. But the business environment is changing, and very quickly, so today the topic of accumulation of oil residues is relevant as never before and requires a detailed consideration. Moreover, the savings on lubricants in the face of fierce competition in the market for transportation services provides quite significant advantages over rivals.
Of course, first of all, each carrier must do everything so that the problem of the "different oils" in his company does not arise. As you know, the disease is easier to prevent than to treat. So let's start by getting around the problem.
Due to the operation of the motor on a “cocktail” of oils of different quality classes and bases, soot may be deposited
Due to the motor running on a “cocktail” of oils of different quality classes and basis, carbon deposits may be deposited. Due to the motor working on a “cocktail” of oils of different quality classes and bases, carbon deposits may be deposited. Due to the motor working on a “cocktail” of oils of different quality classes and bases can be deposited
Alexey Kudinkin, head of the technical department of ATP Yuzhkuzbassugol LLC
Our trucking company is engaged in the transportation of coal and rock at the facilities of a large coal company in Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo region. About 250 units of various equipment are employed in these transportations. It is operated in especially difficult conditions of coal enterprises (increased dust content, low quality of road surface, extremely low temperatures, etc.). For reasons beyond our control, the manufacturers of the lubricants supplied to us periodically change. The company's specialists are faced with the choice: to mix the lubricants of various manufacturers by topping up or still make a complete oil change. We have not found an official confirmation or refutation of the admissibility of mixing lubricants of various manufacturers, subject to classifications. How lubricants behave when mixed and how this will affect the service life of the units is also not clear. We ask you to give clarifications on this issue or to indicate competent sources that can give an official conclusion on the admissibility of mixing lubricants of various manufacturers.
A drop in the lubricating properties of the engine oil when foreign is added to it can lead to shaft wear
A decrease in the lubricating properties of engine oil when adding foreign to it can lead to shaft wear. A decrease in the lubricating properties of engine oil when adding foreign to it can lead to shaft wear. A decrease in the lubricating properties of engine oil when adding foreign to it can lead to shaft wear.
It is necessary, first of all, to begin with a debriefing of flights - why the company had a “different population” and who is to blame for this - from analyzing the performance of managers. The main reason for the appearance in the warehouse of fuels and lubricants of products from several manufacturers and the accumulation of illiquid residues of various displacement on it is the lack of a permanent connection between the department of the chief mechanic of the ATP, whose head is literally responsible for the technique with his own head, and the fuel and lubricants procurement manager - supplier. These two employees are obliged to work together, as the first must understand common truth: the lubricant poured into various components and assemblies is not recommended by the dealer or distributor, but by the designer of this component and assembly. Why? Yes, because as well as a gear, piston, liner or bearing - is an integral part of the motor, gearbox, rear axle, and the oil poured into the crankcases of these units is a constructive element of these nodes. That is why it is impossible to consider the lubricant separately from the unit in which it will work.
In practice, the calculation, creation or selection of a lubricant occurs even at the stage of designing a particular unit, therefore, a competent choice of lubricant plays a decisive role in the further work of this unit or mechanism as a whole and affects its performance in specific operating conditions. For automotive technology, this is not only the temperature range and loads, but also the quality of the fuel, which is often forgotten or not taken into account when choosing, say, engine oil. But the worse the fuel, the higher quality the oil should have. In addition, it must be replaced at reduced maintenance intervals. For each manufacturer of equipment, the reduction in maintenance intervals is calculated according to the original method or is taken based on the experience of operating the equipment in a particular region. That is, the reduction in the interval is determined empirically. However, in some cases, even such measures do not give a positive result, and the brand and supplier change. Of course, replacing a player on the field while maintaining the previous conditions does not give a result, and after a while the story repeats. The circle is closed.
Alexander Antonov, technical expert at Petro-Lyub, the official distributor of Petro-Canada lubricants in Russia
- The issue of mixing the oils used in commercial technology is rather complicated and ambiguous. On the one hand, engine, hydraulic, and gear oils cannot be mixed. They are designed to operate in different units and in different operating conditions, therefore, they have not only different percentages of base oil and additives, but also packages of additives that differ greatly in chemical composition. As for the “mixing” of oils of the same purpose, the situation here is somewhat different. Mixing of motor oils of different brands can occur during operation in two cases.
The first is topping up the oil in the engine to compensate for the drop in its volume as a result of natural fumes. It is not recommended to use oils of a different brand in this case, since a conflict between the additives of the oils and the chemical reaction with the most unforeseen consequences cannot be ruled out. In some cases, due to a sharp deterioration in the properties of the oil (sludge formation, stratification of the base, and so on), the motor in the “stress” mode and even the failure of the power unit cannot be ruled out. To calculate the "savings" obtained from the intended use of several liters of illiquid oil, compare its cost with the losses incurred by the company in the event of machine downtime due to engine breakdown.
The second is oil change as part of maintenance (MOT). In this case, after draining the used oil, filling another brand of oil is possible. The fact that a fresh oil will be mixed and an indelible residue is taken into account by all developers of lubricants and such mixing will not bring any negative consequences.
It is difficult to imagine a situation when the normal operation of a hydraulic system or transmission requires the addition of another brand of oil, unless the machinery and special equipment are in an unsatisfactory technical condition. In this case, after repair or elimination of the causes of oil leaks from the hydraulic system or transmission, it is possible to fill in fresh oil of another brand instead of the drained used oil.
No global manufacturer of lubricants gives recommendations for mixing their oils with products of another manufacturer, even if they are of the same purpose. There are special programs for making the right decision on the use of certain lubricants, as well as monitoring the condition of the oil, predicting the performance of machines and mechanisms. For example, our company has one called PetroLUBE TEST. With this thin tool you can make a real assessment of the possibility of mixing oils of various brands. We use it in practice when switching the fleet to Petro-Canada lubricants. As part of the PetroLUBE TEST, the miscibility of Petro-Canada oils with oils from other manufacturers is evaluated. According to a program agreed with the client, which includes the percentage of mixed oils, physico-chemical indicators of the oil’s working capacity, samples are analyzed in an independent laboratory. Based on the results of the analysis, conclusions are drawn: about the current state of the oil itself; about the technical condition of the equipment; about the forecast of equipment performance.
For more than three years of conducting the PetroLUBE TEST, we have had cases of incompatibility of Petro-Canada oils with oils from other manufacturers, especially hydraulic oils.
One of the key tests of commercial oil on a ball machine
One of the key tests of marketable oil on a ball machine One of the key tests of marketable oil on a ball machine One of the key tests of marketable oil on a ball machine
Let’s say more, if we analyze the complaints regarding the quality of motor oil accepted for consideration, which caused a change in the supplier, brand, and manufacturer, then out of 100% of cases 80 are associated with the wrong choice of lubricant. That is, the change of supplier was made hastily, for no apparent reason. Today, a car company, especially a large one, has more than ever the opportunity to “bend” at the price of traders of spare parts and consumables. And for this, carriers have very significant arguments - operating experience. Returning to the topic of oils, we emphasize once again: in the choice of fuels and lubricants, the decision of the chief mechanic, who is directly responsible for the performance and maintenance of the equipment, is important.
The less damage to the metal sphere, the better
The less damage to the metal sphere, the better. The less damage to the metal sphere, the better. The less damage to the metal sphere, the better.
It is worth noting that today the most effective management of procurement and selection of lubricants occurs at automobile enterprises, where the truck owner himself (a small and medium fleet of vehicles) directly decides on the use of one or another type of lubricant. The main plus of making a decision “with one head” (note, interested in the efficiency of housekeeping) is the lack of the very possibility of getting a rollback during the procurement, as well as “squeezing” a fair price for the goods from the supplier. Of course, the owner of the transport company, making such a crucial decision, must either have a technical background or be aware of the nuances of the choice of lubricants.
Ilya Martynenko, Head of the Department of Oils for Commercial Vehicles, LLC Mobile Oil Lubrikaets
- Technical experts of our company do not recommend carriers to experiment by mixing oils from different manufacturers, as this can lead to equipment failure. A simple car repair will cause much more financial damage to the fleet than the profit that the carrier will receive, having attached illiquid oil residues. Если рассматривать научную сторону данного вопроса, то существует один стандарт ASTM D6922, который описывает смешение масел и регламентирует порядок исследований происходящих при этом процессов. Однако глубоко «копнуть» он не позволяет, ограничивая возможности лишь перечнем видимых признаков возникновения негативных химических процессов при смешивании продуктов от разных производителей или разных классов: как правило, это либо расслоение масел, либо выпадение в них осадков. Я лично наблюдал данные явления и заявляю, что при смешении продуктов разных производителей могут произойти самые непредсказуемые реакции между химическими соединениями, входящими в их пакеты присадок. При этом за кадром остается изменение моющих, антиокислительных, противопенных, диспергирующих и прочих свойств масла.
Для того чтобы полноценно оценить последствия при смешении разных продуктов, необходимо произвести полный цикл исследований на специальном сертифицированном лабораторном оборудовании по общепринятым методикам. Замечу, что стоят такие исследования не дешево, поэтому производители масел по своей инициативе деньги в них не вкладывают, проводят в ограниченном объеме. Go ahead. Согласно рекомендациям API (Американский институт нефти) и ACEA (Европейская ассоциация автопроизводителей) все моторные масла допускают смешение с 10%-ми «чужого» продукта от заправочного объема. При этом никаких негативных последствий для масла, которое составляет 90%, быть не должно. Концентрация при смешивании масел имеет большое значение. Так, если при указанной выше пропорции 10/90 никакой химической реакции может и не происходить, то стоит изменить отношение смешиваемых частей 25/75, и «цепная реакция» не заставит себя долго ждать. Именно поэтому стандартом регламентировано внесение не более 10% чужого масла. Не последнюю роль в запуске механизма химической реакции играет присутствие в поддоне картера воды, которая скапливается в нем в виде конденсата либо вследствие протекания системы охлаждения двигателя. Обводнение масла есть одна из причин его ускоренного старения, так как именно в присутствии воды окислительные реакции протекают более интенсивно.
Так вот, смесь масел может нормально работать вобезвоженном состоянии, но как только в нее попадает влага - катализатор, начинаются химические реакции, подчас непредсказуемые и неуправляемые. Что касается гидравлических масел, то вероятность возникновения проблем при их смешивании низка, однако если компоненты разнородных продуктов вступят в конфликт, то последствия могут носить катастрофический характер. Например, засорение и выход из строя клапанов гидрораспределителей и прочей управляющей гидроаппаратуры вследствие образования в масле осадка (хлопьев) приведет к ощутимым финансовым потерям.
Виктор Самохвалов, заместитель генерального директора холдинговой компании «Совтрансавто»
- На предприятиях «Совтрансавто» смешивание масел, будь то моторные, трансмиссионные или гидравлические, не практикуется. В исключительных случаях имеет место доливка масла с аналогичными показателями качества, вязкости, типа основы производства другой фирмы, но не более 10% от заправочного объема масла в двигателе. Считаю, что смешивать масла нельзя по причине весомого различия в составах пакетов их присадок. У каждого производителя своя химическая формула, которая является строго охраняемым секретом фирмы.
Однако по имеющейся у нас статистике, среди хозяев бизнеса в сфере автоперевозок лишь четверть имеют специальное автомобильное образование. Это означает, что 75% бизнесменов, влияющих на расклад сил в транспортном сегменте, вынуждены опираться в своих решениях на помощников. Крупное автопредприятие имеет, как правило, большой отдел снабжения. С одной стороны, это неплохо, так как позволяет поставить отдельного человека на определенное направление по обеспечению, как то: масла и прочие ГСМ, запасные части, оснастка и спецоборудование, в том числе для комплектования собственных ремонтных зон и СТО. Но при большом количестве ответственных лиц между механиками и снабженцами могут быть нарушены коммуникации. Люди, отвечающие за закупки, будут стремиться выбрать на рынке предложение с наименьшей ценой. Однако в результате может сложиться ситуация, когда снабженцы приобретают масла подешевле, «экономя» бюджет компании, но упускают из вида требования к смазкам, а механики потом ломают голову решая, как эти масла применять.
What is the result? Все просто - отдел закупок и служба главного механика должны взаимодействовать так, чтобы за выбор и применение смазочного материала отвечал главный механик, на котором лежит ответственность за работоспособность техники, выход ее на линию.
Про такое явление, как получение отката от торгующей организации, и как на него правильно реагировать владельцу бизнеса, посвящен отдельный материал. Читайте его в разделе «Экономика».
Сейчас же просто скажем: общение с владельцами ведущих транспортных компаний, которые делятся с журналом своим опытом, свидетельствует: при грамотном подборе управляющего персонала про такое явление, как «откат», можно забыть. Мало того, прошедший совсем недавно кризис позволил фирмам произвести чистку кадров и оставить на рабочих местах только тех сотрудников, которые радеют за дело и проводят закупки исключительно с целью экономии средств фирмы, а не пополнения собственного кармана.
Почему еще так важно четко взаимодействовать службе главного механика автотранспортного предприятия и производителя масел, минуя финансовые структуры, осуществляющие закупку? Современная коммерческая техника настолько быстро развивается (усложняется), что практически под каждое новое поколение машин производители смазочных материалов разрабатывают и новую линейку смазок. За примерами далеко ходить не нужно. Так, для моторов, оснащенных сажевыми фильтрами, требуются свои, особые масла, имеющие минимальный уровень содержания серы. Последняя, как известно, оказывает негативное воздействие на сажевые фильтры и нейтрализаторы, приводит к преждевременному выходу их из строя. Масла с определенными свойствами требуют и моторы, оснащаемые селективными методами нейтрализации выхлопных газов, где помимо системы дожигания, рециркуляции применяется впрыск в выпускной коллектор раствора мочевины (AdBlue).
Современные малосернистые масла при этом могут претендовать на звание универсальных, но, опять-таки, с рядом оговорок по их применению. Поскольку каждый продукт, ориентированный под конкретную машину, обладает своими свойствами, которые закладываются химическим составом пакета присадок. Что произойдет при смешивании масел, ориентированных на работу в моторах разных автомобилей, предсказать невозможно, но точно ничего хорошего.
Дмитрий Соболь, кандидат технических наук, технический специалист ООО «ТоталВосток»
- None of the major oil producers say that its products are mixed with competitors without deterioration in performance. And this despite the fact that the European Association of Automakers (ACEA) clearly indicates that engine oils that have the same ACEA classification are compatible. This, at first glance, paradoxical situation is easily explainable, since it is not a mindless mixture of products from different manufacturers, but the absence of a conflict between fresh oil and an unleavened residue, which is about 5 to 15% of the engine oil system volume. There is no talk that the carrier can dilute one oil with another in this proportion! Moreover, fresh oil must strictly comply with the requirements imposed on it by the manufacturer of the power unit. In this case, the oils of the same type will be mixed, having the same classification according to ACEA and API.
It is also desirable to adhere to the identity of the viscosity of the oils and the type of base on which they are made. As for mixing gear oils, I do not recommend producing it at all. The products of this group have a very thin package of additives, and any deterioration in the properties of the lubricant can lead to sad consequences, up to the "welding" of the gear teeth when they contact under high load. With hydraulic oils, the picture is somewhat different. If we are talking about clean hydraulics, which has a similar classification according to ISO and HM or HV (i.e. thickened or non-thickened oils), then products of different brands can be mixed without fear, the main thing is that the classification coincides. However, in addition to hydraulic oil, ATF fluids, which are also used in automatic transmissions, can be filled in the hydraulic system of dump trucks. In this case, the mixing of hydraulic oil and ATF is not permissible.
The remaining oil is poured onto the topping in a small container in terms of displacement
The remaining oil is poured onto the topping up in a small container in terms of volume. The remaining oil is poured into the topping up into a small container in terms of volume. The remaining oil is poured onto the topping in small containers per liter.
The time has come to touch on an extremely acute and inconvenient (with respect to automotive equipment manufacturers) question: is it possible to pour oil into the units that meets the required quality class according to API and ACEA, but does not have specific approvals of automakers? On the one hand, engineers are well aware that in some cases, these tolerances and requirements are nothing more than a marketing ploy. The engine manufacturer, developing its power unit for five years, works closely with one, “court” oilman, who also invests his own funds in the project and expects not only to return the money spent, but also to make a profit. And since during the development process the oilman upgraded the additive package, improving certain oil properties, his product is the first to receive the engine manufacturer’s approval and a pass to the conveyor, as well as to branded service stations. On the one hand, this is true: those who invested money must profit. On the other hand, the carrier sooner or later, but will certainly encounter such a problem as the dictatorship of prices.
And if you have to put up with this during the warranty period when the machine is serviced at a branded service station, then at the end of the warranty, the manufacturer of an expensive oil is replaced by someone who offers a similar product at an affordable price. It should be borne in mind that each oil producer strives and creates his products in excess of the properties indicated on the label. It turns out that in most cases, the carrier, when choosing oil, can safely focus on the parameters of the product quality class (API, ACEA), viscosity, as well as, if it is agreed separately, the type of base and sulfur content. This allows you to expand the circle of suppliers and choose the most reliable one from them, when working with which there will be no interruption in supply, which means that illiquid oil residues will not form in the warehouse. Then, when working with one partner, it is much easier to solve such acute issues as “who is to blame for the failure of the unit” and receive monetary compensation.
Solution to the problem
Now we will figure out how to solve the problem of the accumulation of illiquid oil residues. But before giving specific recommendations, we are obliged to clearly state the opinion of automotive manufacturers regarding the use of lubricants. Since they are identical, we give a certain average wording reflecting a single line of automakers.
According to the regulations, the oil in the units must be completely changed. Allowed oil consumption "on waste", especially on turbocharged and heavily loaded engines. Accordingly, in this situation, it is also necessary to top up the oil to the norm, but this must be done with oil identical to that which is charged in the lubrication system. Topping up oil is a procedure that does not replace routine oil changes. Mixing oils from different manufacturers under normal operating conditions is unacceptable, as this will lead to a change in the working properties of the oils, their premature oxidation (aging). In addition, none of the oil producers guarantees that the additives contained in its oil will not enter into undesirable physical and chemical interactions with additives from another manufacturer. Possible consequences - clogging of the oil-supplying channels of the internal combustion engine (gearbox, bridge), increased friction, the formation of varnish deposits on the working surfaces of the parts. In the event that the fact of mixing the oils is detected, the car is removed from the warranty.
So, the position of equipment manufacturers is clear: it is impossible to mix engine oils of various brands. In the best case, you lose the guarantee, in the worst - you get to repair the power unit, and this, believe me, costs many times more than the refueling volume of the most modern and expensive oil. Note that no statements made by carriers such as “the machine was operated and maintained in accordance with the regulations, using approved lubricants (specified in the instructions)” cost nothing compared to the results of the mandatory examination of oils, which are carried out by specialists of branded service centers in the event of a dispute. This is done on special facilities of spectral analysis, which, in essence, like lie detectors, do not hide anything from them. Why was this voiced? And in order that the carrier, who decided to get rid of the oil residues by adding them to the engine crankcase in order to compensate for the consumed grease from burning oil or leak through the seals, did not have hopes that this fact would go unnoticed. An examination will necessarily show whether there has been a dilution of the regular oil otherwise. Such strictness on the part of the engineering personnel of the branded service stations is quite understandable: if, according to the operating instructions, the use of exclusively low-sulfur product is allowed, and the carrier poured (added) oil containing sulfur to the crankcase, then despite the compliance with the requirements for the quality class, viscosity, etc. will be withdrawn from the warranty, since sulfur, once in the neutralization system (particulate filter, converter), can cause irreparable harm to it.
So, you can’t officially mix oils. Only products that strictly meet the requirements of the automaker (engine manufacturer) can be used. Nevertheless, here we can put a comma and slightly weaken oppression from the side of the law written by factory engineers. Moreover, they themselves left a kind of loophole for carriers so that they could break this law.
Presumption of innocence
Bypassing the law for carriers allows the requirement of the European Association of Automobile Manufacturers for motor oils, stipulating the possibility of mixing products with identical properties in small proportions. We will announce them below. There is a paradoxical situation. On the one hand, you can’t mix oils, on the other hand, you can, but subject to a small amount of product introduced. Where does such a “discrepancy” come from? Everything is simple. Due to the presence in the motors of the so-called non-leaking oil residue, which simply cannot be removed from the internal combustion engine, no matter how hard the repair service would try. A separate piece of material was dedicated to this topic by Flight magazine (see Flight No. 6–2010, Alien Blood). We will extract important information from this article: the non-leaking oil residue for diesel engines with a working volume of 10-12 liters is from 3 to 5 liters and does not have a noticeable negative effect on fresh oil.
Synthetic motor oils have excellent detergent properties
Synthetic engine oils have excellent detergent properties Synthetic engine oils have excellent detergent properties Synthetic engine oils have excellent detergent
So, if we take into account the fact that the refueling volume of the engines we are considering (and these are diesel engines with a working volume of 10–12 liters) is on average 30–40 liters of oil, then the share of the “alien” in the fresh fill will be approximately 10%. Before operating with a digit, we emphasize that these 10% are oil in their characteristics, strictly (!) Meeting the requirements of the engine manufacturer. This is extremely important, since the carrier should not have the feeling that the processing of absolutely any oil can be considered as an indelible residue. This misconception is extremely dangerous and can lead to the most unforeseen consequences for the motor, despite the seemingly insignificant share of the “foreign” product. So, the mixing of oils will not lead to negative consequences and will not become a reason for removing the machine from the guarantee, if it had to be with an indelible residue, which, like the new oil, corresponded in its properties and quality to the products recommended by the motor manufacturer.
Flushing the motor makes sense if it is filled with mineral oil
Flushing the motor makes sense if it is refilled with mineral oil Flushing the motor makes sense if it is refilled with mineral oil Flushing the motor makes sense if it is refilled with mineral oil
Sergey Gorbunov, Ph. D., Technical Director of Starlyub, the exclusive authorized distributor of Texaco lubricants in the Russian Federation
- Texaco lubricants can be mixed with similar products from other manufacturers when changing the oil (with the remnants of the old used oil) and in case of topping up. However, it is recommended that the total volume of third-party oil be limited to 10-15% of the replacement volume, since when mixing oils in large proportions, a sufficiently fine balance of the properties of additives used in the oils can be disrupted, which is likely to lead to a decrease in the level of performance and resource mixture of oils. Mixing oils is only possible under the following conditions. Lubricants must be produced by leading companies that can guarantee the quality of their products, correspond to a similar viscosity class (SAE, ISO, GOST). Lubricants must comply with similar classifications (API, ACEA, JASO, DIN, ISO, etc.) and also meet or fulfill the requirements of the equipment manufacturer (manufacturer approval). They must be produced on an identical base basis. All of the above is true to one degree or another in relation to gear oils.
The only point requiring additional attention is the limited slip differentials. Very often products for them are designated LS. A similar situation is with hydraulic oils. However, when mixing them, it is important to consider which additive package they use - ash (for example, zinc) or ashless (without zinc). The statistics accumulated over many years of work by the specialists of our company show that if hydraulic fluids are produced on the same basis, they can be mixed in various proportions without deterioration. If the carrier has any suspicions about the possibility of negative consequences from mixing oils from different manufacturers, then he can always require the supplier of fuel and lubricants to conduct a compatibility test of certain products in an independent laboratory (for example, MITs fuels and lubricants).
The non-leaking residue can be the same type of oil that is refilled - the case when the carrier methodically uses the same product from the same manufacturer. The non-leaking residue may differ in its characteristics from the new oil - the case when the carrier changes the oil producer. Where did we bring these examples? And the fact that in the first embodiment we, in fact, do not have the fact of mixing dissimilar lubricants, which means we reserve the right to add 10% of a foreign product to a portion of new oil. In the second case, foreign oil has already been added to the fresh product in the form of an indelible residue, which means that we can’t add anything so that it doesn’t reflect (fix) the spectral analysis, since everything introduced above will shift the maximum allowable concentration of more than 10%, and the carrier automatically becomes the culprit of the failure of the power unit. It turns out that getting rid of illiquid oil residues by adding them to the main portion of a fresh product is possible only if the carrier used the same oil from the same manufacturer.
Another important circumstance, which we cannot keep silent about, is the unalloyed residue of the used oil, which contains the remains of oxidized additives and wear products of the engine. If it is identical to the fresh oil being poured, then it does not worsen its characteristics as much as the non-sludge residue of an oil from another manufacturer. After all, a foreign product contains an excellent composition of additives. Hope that these additives, from which, in fact, the main threat comes from mixing oils from different manufacturers, have worked out by 80–90 percent and can no longer cause serious harm to the fresh product, since the concentration of active components in the development is low, not worth it. Chemistry knows many examples when the rate of the reaction and, in general, the possibility of its occurrence depend on the concentration of the introduced components. It is possible that to start the oxidation process with irreversible consequences, it is this very 1% component introduced from the outside that is required, and if the dosage is increased to 10%, no reaction will follow. Of course, none of the oil manufacturers conducted in-depth studies on the mixing of various oils, much less spent ones with new, and even with varying proportions of mixed materials. But this is all a theory. In practice, cases where, due to mixing of a new oil with an indelible residue, any irreversible chemical processes would occur with the formation of sediment, slag, or a critical change in the properties of the oil base, are not known. Therefore, carriers can safely use these very 10% of the volume of oil in force majeure circumstances. But again, on condition that the engine worked several oil changes on the same product!
To wash or not to wash?
So, let's say the situation was such that during the flight the driver was forced to add oil from another manufacturer to the engine, and the proportion of the topping was greater than 10/90. In this case, the permissible norm turned out to be exceeded, and no one can predict the consequences of this. Immediately upon returning to the base of mechanics, in order to exclude the possibility of damage to the motor or reduce the consequences of its operation on a mixture of oils, a complete lubricant change is made. However, the question remains: is engine flushing required? On the one hand, such an operation is very useful, since it is not known at what stage the chemical processes were in the oil, and where there are guarantees that the sediment flakes did not already fall to the bottom of the crankcase, slags did not deposit in the oil lines, other engine cavities. Flushing oil, due to the high detergent properties that set the appropriate additives, will not only dissolve, but will also remove most of the fresh contaminants from the engine. It's good!
On the other hand, flushing oils are for the most part made on a mineral basis, and, accordingly, an indelible residue, which, as we have already mentioned above, is 10%, by definition, will have a mineral base. With the further use of “mineral water” as a result of mixing the unsolvable residue and a new product, the deterioration of the properties of the latter will not be so noticeable as if fresh synthetic oil was poured into the motor. What can be concluded from the above? If the engine worked and will work on synthetic oil, which has excellent detergent and dispersant properties, then there is no need to flush the lubrication system when a “cocktail” enters the crankcase and subsequently removes it. However, given that there was a “mix” with unknown properties in the non-leaking residue, it is worth reducing the mileage of new oil by 15–20 percent, and then returning to the previous maintenance intervals.
As a top-up, you can use oil drained from one or two machines
As a top-up, you can use oil, drained from one or two cars. As a top-up, you can use oil, drained from one or two cars. As a top-up, you can use oil, drained from one or two cars.
It is impossible to foresee when purchasing oil all the circumstances in which its additional volume may be required, and a situation where the lubricant is poured into the crankcases and nothing is left to top up, alas, is not uncommon. If there is a fact that the car company has switched to oils of another manufacturer, and buying an extra barrel for adding oil to the previous brand for economic reasons is not profitable, you can use the donor principle. To do this, one more usable oil is completely drained from one machine. Its volume, which is 30–40 liters, should be enough to top up all the machines that are filled with this type of oil. This eliminates the possibility of a foreign product entering the crankcase and impairing the properties of the oil. At the same time, the change of brand and type of oil will be painless, as the new lubricant will be filled during the next maintenance.
Moreover, if the fleet of cars is large, the equipment operates in harsh conditions, there is a high oil consumption for waste, or there are cases of leakage through worn seals, and the cost of refilling is substantial, then you can drain the oil not from one, but two machines. In any case, the carrier is able to provide the equipment with one type of oil without resorting to mixing it. If at the warehouse there are several grades of oil in an insignificant volume, say, from ten to fifteen liters of each grade, then they can be used for topping up in force majeure circumstances. Why lubricant should be poured into containers of 3-5 liters and distributed to the drivers. At the same time, as we mentioned above, the oil given in its properties - the level of quality, base, viscosity and sulfur content - should be identical to that which is poured into the engine. Thus, the repair service will exclude the very possibility that in the event of an emergency requiring oil to be added on the flight, the driver uses a product with a different level of properties than that required.
Another way to attach an illiquid asset is to turn it into heat to heat the workshop
Another way to attach an illiquid asset is to turn it into heat for heating the service station. Another way to attach an illiquid asset is to turn it into heat for the heating service station. Another way to attach an illiquid asset is to turn it into heat for the heating service station
If, for all the aspirations of the car fleet, the "heterogeneous oil" cannot be avoided, then this phenomenon can be used for the good, for example, to reduce the cost of heating the repair zone. It is enough to equip the repair area with a furnace that consumes used oils as fuel. The magazine "Flight" spoke about the principle of operation of this equipment in No. 9–2007, “A stove with oil”. Over the past five years from the date of publication, new players have appeared on the market, representing more modern and economical equipment at affordable prices. But in repair shops the equipment of such companies as CleanBurn, Energy Logic, IMA, Kroll, Lanair, Master, Omni, Termobile, Belamos is most often found. Which manufacturer's products to purchase? The one who is nearby and who is guaranteed to provide its products with spare parts and qualified service.
- The choice of oil should be done by the main mechanic of the car depot. The supplier’s task is to buy the required product at the lowest price, without interfering with the selection process and without affecting it.
- Before changing the oil supplier due to the high purchase price of the product or the acquisition of new equipment requiring more modern lubricants, discuss with your partner both the reduction in the price and the availability of the oils you need in his product line.
- Oil purchases must be made from dealers, distributors, representatives of one brand.
- The fuel and lubricants supply fleet supply partner should be a well-known and stable company operating in your region for many years.
- Mixing oils within the production line of one manufacturer is less harmful than mixing products from different brands.
- Poor oil performance is not always the result of its poor performance. In addition to the analysis of engine oil, it is necessary to conduct a study of fuel samples, on which the equipment works.
- Motor oils have a very selective - selective blending selection. It is necessary to mix motor oils at the rate of not more than 10% of the filling volume.
- Transmission oils must not be mixed.
- Hydraulic fluids with the same classification allow mixing.
- In order not to add someone else's oil to the fresh, use the donor principle - drain the oil from one machine and use it to top up.
- Illiquid oil residues can be used to top up in force majeure circumstances, but the distribution of lubricant in the machines must be made based on the properties of the oils poured into the ICE crankcases. Distribution should be handled by the chief mechanic.
- Flushing the lubrication system in the case of adding foreign oil in an amount of more than 10% will be relevant for mineral oils. In the case of synthetics, washing is not necessary, and in some cases it is harmful.
- After an emergency oil refill in an amount of more than 10% and not flushing the lubrication system, the service life of the new oil (maintenance interval) should be reduced by 25%.
- Масла, оставшиеся в незначительном количестве можно использовать для нужд ремонтной зоны, например, для смазки деталей двигателя, коробки передач, агрегатов гидравлической системы в процессе их сборки или же просто утилизировать.
- Затраты на ремонт крупных агрегатов при выходе их из строя вследствие применения масел с несоответствующим уровнем свойств (падение свойств при смешивании) значительно выше, чем стоимость заправки новым маслом.
- Самые точные данные по последствиям от смешения масел различных производителей могут дать независимые лаборатории, например МИЦ ГСМ.
- Для замещения продуктов конкурентов своими маслами крупные компании на льготных условиях готовы проводить тесты на смешения масел разных брендов. Для этого в их распоряжении имеются необходимое оборудование и методики. Условием для получения данных услуг является желание перевозчика поменять поставщика ГСМ.