When the first enterprises for the assembly of foreign cars started operating in Russia, it turned out that in the huge, richest country, there was not enough metal of the required quality (including non-ferrous). Of the 52 steel and steel mills, only one more or less met the requirements of the modern automobile industry. Not so hot was with plastic and other chemical materials. That is why, for example, Volkswagen in the first year of work in Russia was able to select only nine Russian suppliers from two and a half hundreds who wanted to cooperate with it.
Therefore, after automobile companies, component manufacturers came to Russia. They organized enterprises either as their full-fledged branches, or as a joint venture with Russian partners. There were more of the first.
By the way, of the nearly a million foreign cars produced last year, the third part is assembled using the large-unit assembly (SKD) method. To one degree or another, it is used by the Kaluga plant Peugeot-Citroen-Mitsubishi, the Far East Sollers, for a number of models - the Kaliningrad AUTO. The share of Russian parts in this case is negligible. But the other part of automobile companies (Ford in Vsevolozhsk, Avtoframos in Moscow, Hyundai in St. Petersburg, Volkswagen in Kaluga) were already able to localize well - by 20–45%. Around them, in the first place, allied plants are nesting.
The organization of the production of high-quality parts of the first level is still only a dream
The organization of the production of high-quality parts of the first level is still only a dream. The organization of the production of high-quality parts of the first level is still only a dream.
Recently, the Spanish company Gestamp, which already has two sites - near Kaluga and Vsevolozhsk, announced its readiness to place a new production in the special economic zone of Togliatti. Robert Bosch intends to expand his activities in Russia: the Germans will launch the production of a dynamic stabilization system, anti-lock brakes and speed sensors for Lada Grant. In total, there are already more than 40 foreign enterprises manufacturing automobile components in Russia; their development stimulates the growth of other related industries - the production of sheet steel, cast iron, aluminum alloys, and composites.
The structure of car production in the Russian Federation is steadily changing in favor of foreign cars, and the details for them are more expensive. In money, it looks like this: in the primary market, 80% of the money is spent on the purchase of components for foreign cars and only 20% - for domestic cars. Although in unit terms, production volumes are still approximately equal.
Nevertheless, at our factories producing domestic models (Lada, GAZ, UAZ), the share of components with foreign names is also growing - from 10% in 2008 to about 16% in the past. In the assembly of foreign cars, the situation is this: Russian enterprises (including branches of foreign companies) supply only 14% of components to conveyors, the bulk of components and parts (86%) come from abroad.
IMPORT OF VEHICLES, ACCESSORIES AND SPARE PARTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION in 2011 (according to the AFM-holding)
HOW TO COUNT
The technique by which the localization level is calculated has changed repeatedly over the past decade. In the early 2000s, when the customs warehouse regime was in effect, the manufacturer, when calculating the degree of localization, took into account absolutely all the expenses that he incurred on Russian territory, from the salary of workers to the purchase of toilet paper for them. (So, for example, Ford began to work in Vsevolozhsk.) And the Ministry of Industry solemnly reported on the basis of the data provided by the company: the degree of localization reached 30%! Although then in the “Focus” were originally Russian several rubber parts.
Having switched to industrial assembly mode, they began to consider differently - in money, as a percentage of the total cost. Let's say a node assembled in Russia makes up 10% of the total price of a car, which means we have a 10% localization. It seems to be logical, but here has its own subtlety.
Components of three levels are distinguished, and many experts consider the first to be the most important and responsible. At this stage, the basic elements (parts, microcircuits, etc.) are produced for the subsequent assembly of certain nodes. Assembly of nodes is the second level. And at the third level, complex systems - say, the complete brake system - are made up of second-level products. So, in Russia today they produce components only of the second or third levels from parts and materials that simply do not exist in our country. By definition.
Despite the developed metallurgy, Russian hire for the automotive industry is in short supply
Despite the developed metallurgy, Russian hire for the automotive industry is in short supply. Despite the developed metallurgy, Russian hire for the automotive industry is in short supply.
Here is a very real example. The joint venture makes gas tanks. Only here the plastic shell of a tank is squeezed out in Moscow by a thermoplastic automatic machine - naturally, imported, from imported granules; all metal parts, gaskets and sensors are also from abroad. In Russia, only the final assembly is carried out, for which several dozen workers of not the highest qualification, who work under the guidance of a master, are quite enough. Everything! Even an engineer is not needed, not to mention the designer - as they say, everything has already been invented before us. Our business is to assemble according to the attached technological scheme, pack it and send it to the customer on the assembly line. It reminds me of assembling furniture at home from a ready-made set.
I repeat once again: according to existing practice, this tank is considered 100% Russian, although if we analyze the technical process and costs, we can only talk about 15-20% of the value added.
However, someday a powerful component industry will still appear in our country, because new industrial assembly agreements oblige us to raise the level of localization to 60%. Only when will this happen and how?..
LAST YEAR, THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY DEPARTED FROM RUSSIA MORE THAN 56 BILLION. DOLLARS - THEY WENT TO PURCHASE OF MACHINE KITS, ASSEMBLIES AND PARTS
According to all documents, the Russian gas tank. In fact, the contribution of the Russians is about fifteen percent
According to all documents, the Russian gas tank. In fact, the contribution of the Russians is about fifteen percent. According to all documents, the Russian gas tank. In fact, the contribution of the Russians is about fifteen percent.