Professor Henry Higgins from Pygmalion easily determined the pedigree of a person by his pronunciation. It is interesting, but how similar will the 95th gasolines purchased in different regions of Russia be? Do they have a kind of “accent” - Kalmyk or, say, Arkhangelogorsk? And will the engine understand such “dialects”? Well, let’s go through the country “from the southern mountains to the northern seas”, buy gasoline at a dozen different gas stations and compare. How this happened is in our lyrical digression.
The requirements of the Technical Regulations for different environmental classes of fuel (as we officially call the "Jews") are given below. We will also evaluate the octane number and tar content - parameters that are important for both the motor and the environment. We will pretend that we don’t know that someone’s wise hand excluded precisely these parameters from the inspection control.
And after a chemical laboratory, we will burn the remaining fuel on a bench motor to see the reaction of a real engine to an unfamiliar “dialect”.
REQUIREMENTS FOR CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLE GASOLINE
Tables and diagrams open in full size with a click of the mouse.
Of the twelve samples, only two were clearly substandard (codes 4 and 5). In both cases, there are problems with the octane number, plus an obvious exhaustion of benzene and sulfur. Such fuels are dangerous both for the environment and for the modern engine. Of course, grandfather 412th eats them for a sweet soul and will not choke, but since they are substandard from the point of view of the Technical Regulations, we are silent about them further.
Another thing is much more surprising: in terms of composition, all gasolines were no worse than the third class, and half - and generally the fourth! But what about the well-known comparison with Uganda? A couple of years ago, the media wrote that in terms of gasoline quality, everything is worse than in this African country … But then international experts analyzed fuels by sulfur content. We look at the table: out of twelve samples, eight (!) Were placed in 50 ppm of sulfur, that is, in the requirements of class 4, while two of them generally crawled into the requirements of class 5! Two more - confident class 3. An unexpected and very encouraging result. Remember where gasoline was taken: only one was metropolitan, and the rest - from all over Russia.
So what is added to Russian gasoline? Neither iron, nor manganese, nor lead was found in any sample. Moreover, the monomethylaniline (MMA), once beloved by body-gangs, was found quite a bit in only one gasoline (code 4), which we had already branded. There is no methanol, no other alcohols either. Only the permitted MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) was found, and in acceptable concentrations.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF TESTED GASOLINS
Particularly advanced readers are invited to pay attention to two lines in the table: “Ethers C5 and higher” and “MTBE Content”. The main broadcast of “C5 and higher” is MTBE. And for most samples, these numbers are the same. But where there is no such coincidence, something incomprehensible, and therefore unpredictable, is mixed into the fuel. Three samples excelled here - codes 4, 5 and 6. However, this alone does not make them substandard (not prohibited - it means allowed). But nevertheless it’s interesting - what else are “esters of C5 and higher” mixed in there?
ETHERS AND MOTORS
If everything (except for two samples) is air-conditioned, then where does the difference revealed on the motor come from? It is small (1.5 … 2.0% in power and gas consumption), but still there. Professor Higgins notices such nuances instantly!
The fact is that with practically identical octane numbers and the hydrocarbon composition of gasolines, the main difference is determined by the content of the high-octane component - the very MTBE. At high concentrations, it noticeably changes both the rate of combustion of the fuel and its calorific value. Therefore, there is a certain optimum of its content. And in our samples it varied from 0.5 to 9.3%. Where there is a bust, noticeable decrease in power and increase in fuel consumption. But the proportion of CO in the exhaust gases decreases: esters contain a lot of oxygen.
The sulfur and MTBE content of gasoline (in the absence of other additives) to a certain extent characterizes the level of technical perfection of gasoline synthesis technologies at refineries. The more modern the production, the less MTBE is required to get the 95th. And the less sulfur will be in it.
See the table and draw your own conclusions. Bad gasoline with code 4 is not an indicator here - it uses something else.
MOTOR INDICATORS OF TESTED GASOLINS
Many may not believe our data: it all hurts so sweetly. But what happened is what happened. We will not argue with horror stories. This is not to say that all is well with gasoline in Russia. But given the completely random sampling throughout the European part of the country, the result is not bad.
Professor Higgins brought up a secular lady from a street flower seller.
Octane number (OCH) is the main parameter of gasoline, which determines its detonation resistance. OCh was determined by research and motor methods - this characterizes the behavior of gasoline in different modes of engine operation. The norm of the OBM for the 95th is not less than 85.
Volume fraction of hydrocarbons. The content of aromatic hydrocarbons affects toxicity, increases the tendency to deposits; olefin content determines the stability of gasolines during long-term storage.
Mass fraction of oxygen, a derivative of the content of oxygenates, indirectly limits the limiting proportion of their content in fuel.
Volume fraction of benzene. Benzene is a carcinogenic hazard carrier. Its content is now sharply limited: no more than 1%.
Sulfur concentration. It matters for the environment and affects the resource - exhaust gas neutralizers in the first place.
Resin concentration Affects engine life. Resins are the cause of many troubles, from valve hangs to piston rings.
Volume fraction and composition of oxygenates. These components reduce the calorific value of gasoline, increase its aggressiveness to rubbers and plastics.
The content of MTBE. This ether is one of the oxygenates, the nature of the effect - see above.
The concentration of manganese and iron. Metal-containing antiknock agents are prohibited!
Motor performance. They show the behavior of a real motor depending on the parameters of the fuel being poured.
Volume fraction of MMA. This component of aromatics in fuel at high concentrations enhances its carcinogenic hazard, worsens the combustion process and increases the tendency to deposits.
PERCURES: HOW AND WHERE WE FOUND
Remember Anton Chuikin, Igor Morzharetto, Alexei Vorobyov-Obukhov and Mikhail Kolodochkin
Initially, they wanted to refuel at the most common filling stations in the region, or with emphasis on the local name - such as Ryazannefteprodukt. Here is what happened in the end.
We don’t see local names yet, but a marvelous abandoned column with cows grazing among hoses comes across. We take pictures. You can’t take it any further, and turn around to the pretty decent Nogan gas station found in the village of Gojur (it is 70 km from Elista towards Volgograd). Frankly a small-town station, but a start has been made.
2. Novoanninsky district of the Volgograd region
Already in the evening flooded on "Lukoil". Gasoline is fragrant, the shot is beautiful.
3. The Voronezh region is passing by
At the Kalina-Oil gas station we hear: “We do not refill plastic.” Strange rule! They poured a bit further at an unnamed gas station 377 km from Volgograd.
4. The last kilometers of the Tambov region, “Lipetsk Fuel Company”, 620 km from Volgograd.
True, something completely different is stamped on the check. It happens.
5. The Kholmogory highway captures a piece of the Vladimir region, where we immediately began to search for gas stations. At the right of the course was the gas station LLC STROMSTROY. She was “lucky."
6. Actually, in the metropolitan area, we intended to refuel at the gas stations of the Moscow Fuel Company (MTK): the most appropriate name, it would seem. But not found! It’s on the Internet, but if you come, it’s actually Gazpromneft Center. Well, then, so be it.
7. For the team of the Yaroslavl region, we invited to play TNK-Yaroslavl. The name is quite suitable, and it was not necessary to turn off the track.
8. The Kostroma region is located to the right of the main highway, but it is impossible not to visit it. We’ll take a canister of gas from Kostroma Fuel Company LLC with us.
9. We got to Velsk in the Arkhangelsk Region with great difficulty: tens of kilometers of the track, as if bombed, are being exhausted. A comforting prize is a canister of gasoline from RN-Arkhangelsknefteprodukt LLC.
10. From the Arkhangelsk region back to the Vologda, and from there, past Cherepovets, to Tikhvin. We buy fuel in Sheksna, at gas station No. 2 (IP Sherstakov V. D.).
11. Leningrad region
We refuel at Tikhvin-Petrol LLC, gas station No. 4. The name is quite local.
12. Karelia is very close
But getting from Tikhvin to the Kola highway is something … A dead, abandoned road. Time is running out, and nothing but TNK refueling can be seen. However, we are lucky: OAO Karelianefteproduct is hiding behind a well-known sign. A dozen assembled!
The selection is completed: twelve nameless cans with codes from 1 to 12 are delivered to the ANO "Certification Center" North-West ". So the next examination began …
WHAT IS POSSIBLE AND WHICH IS NOT POSSIBLE
What can and cannot be poured into gasoline to get the right octane rating? According to the Technical Regulations, everything that contains lead, manganese and, more recently, iron (beloved by petrochemists) (in the form of ferrocene) is not allowed! Methanol adored by athletes - again, no! Monomethylaniline (terribly poisonous muck!) Is very cheap and effective, and therefore also petrol-friendly, to petrolmen. It is limited by ridiculous one and a half percent, which are not able to radically remake the 80th to 95th.
What remains? Some alcohols and esters. For example, ethanol. It can be added up to 5% of the fuel volume! But for a Russian person, pouring a precious food product into a gas tank is a great crime. And our Big Heads imposed fuel ethanol with the same excise taxes as food, and then it became unprofitable to use it. Although ethanol is almost the only permitted additive in the whole world, because Spiritus Vini doesn’t harm either the motor or nature.
And we have allowed, and in large volumes, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) - it can be poured into gasoline up to 15%. By the way, in the States it is prohibited - it harms nature. Do not believe? Smell - an unforgettable feeling!
At the same time, MTBE does not very efficiently increase the octane number, but it noticeably reduces the calorific value of fuel, so the engine immediately senses exhaustive search of such an ingredient. Our tests have fully confirmed this.
Mikhail KOLODOCHKIN, Head of the Department of Expertise, ZR:
The most curious thing is that for all the time of the fuel examinations we quite rarely came across a frank, sorry, rubbish. But at the same time, I personally prefer to refuel at a limited number of network gas stations - BP, Neste, Lukoil. I refuse to understand the logic of those who seek fuel “one ruble cheaper”, completely not thinking about the possible consequences of such “savings”.
Alexander SHABANOV, Associate Professor, Department of ICE, St. Petersburg Polytechnic University:
By the nature of my work, I have to constantly deal with gasoline quality problems in St. Petersburg. Not everything is as scary as some particularly advanced publications paint. Moreover, a year and a half ago, a special commission tried to look for sensations, appearing with an unexpected check for a dozen St. Petersburg gas stations. Alas (or maybe cheers), the sensation did not work out. To everyone's amazement, no punctures were found. Our results generally confirm: far from all is well, but frank horrors are not common. I share the preferences of the co-author: refueling at a proven gas station is somehow calmer.
1 Location and time of refueling: gas station IP KATAEV B. S. 2012-25-04 2:31 p.m
Gasoline grade (by check) AI-95-4
Price, rub / l 28.90
In all respects, very mediocre gasoline. It creeps into class 4 without a minimum gap - the aromatics are back to back! The octane number is also at the limit of abuse. But in general, everything is honest. Although not cheap.
+ Very little sulfur, olefins are practically not observed - which means it is stable!
- Yes, the 95th, but on the verge of collapse.
2 Place and time of refueling of gas station No. 113 of LLC LUKOIL-Nizhnevolzhsknefteproduct 04.25.2012 20:52
Brand of gasoline (by check) EKTO Plus (AI-95-4)
Price, rub / l 29.75
We have never seen such a Lukoil! The highest content of high-octane component (MTBE) makes you wonder: is it not franchising? But it fits into the requirements of the Technical Regulations - which means, what claims can be? The most expensive of all purchased.
+ Good stock on octane, aromatics - guaranteed grade 4.
- The high content of low-calorie component of MTBE has worsened motor performance.
3 Place and time of refueling of gas stations of LOMOV N LLC 2012-26-04 13:53
Gasoline grade (by check) AI-95
Price, RUB / l 27, 50
Who says bad gas is in central Russia? This sample shows: not everything is so running! In all respects, normal class 4, there is nothing to complain about. And taking into account the price and very happy!
+ Affordable price with decent quality.
- It’s far to go after him from Moscow …
4 Place and time of refueling LLC “Management Company Company” gas station 2012-26-04 5:51 PM
Gasoline grade (by check) AI-95-3
Price, rub / l 27.60
But we would not recommend pouring such gasoline! Does not fit into the requirements of the Technical Regulations for the content of benzene. And in terms of octane, though small, it’s also a little bit like a pinhole. A catalytic converter from such gasoline will have a bad time: he devotes it with so much sulfur! Yes, and monomethylaniline was found in it, - although permitted, but not useful.
+ An old car without a converter will digest such fuel without any problems.
- But in the new it would be better not to pour it.
5 Place and time of refueling LLC STROMSTROY 2012-14-05 07:40
Brand of gasoline (by check) AI-95
Price, rub / l 28, 30
Another "leader from the end." Sellers of such gasoline love their wallet, but do not like our cars and the environment. Benzene is three and a half times more than normal, sulfur is unmeasured, and there is no detonation resistance. This is not the 95th, but only a slightly improved 92nd. And it’s hard to understand what was swollen in him? Some esters unknown to science …
+ GAZ-66 will go on it. And the Moskvich-412.
- Expensive and poor quality. Does not comply with the Technical Regulations - therefore illegitimate!
6 Place and time of refueling of Gazpromneft-Center LLC gas station No. 103 2012-12-05 06:04
Gasoline brand (by check) AI-95 (class 4)
Price, rub / l 28.90
Fuel quality control in Moscow makes itself felt: gasoline is air-conditioned in all respects. And it would be strange to expect another from the “national treasure”. Not cheap, of course, but class 4 with a good margin.
+ Fully conditioned fuel of the highest environmental class.
- A lot of oxygen in the fuel, and the engine feels it.
7 Location and time of refueling of TNK-Yaroslavl OAO gas station No. 81 2012-14-05 08:54
Brand of gasoline (by check) Gasoline-95 class 4
Price, rub / l 27, 00
But this is a vivid example of a purely factory fuel - good antiknock properties with a minimal presence of something superfluous. But, alas, only class 3 in terms of aromatics. Another advantage is the cheapest!
+ High quality at the lowest price - you need to know how to do it!
- Slightly short of class 4.
8 Location and time of refueling of Kostroma Fuel Company LLC 2012-14-05 11:32
Gasoline brand (by check) AI 95 class 4
Price, rub / l 27.30
Good grade 4 fuel with the lowest levels of additives. Sulfur and benzene are very few - which means that it is clearly "green" in the good sense of the word. And at the same time not at all expensive!
+ And again cheap quality fuel, there’s nothing to complain about!
- Resins detected.
9 Place and time of refueling of LLC RN-Arkhangelsk-Nefteprodukt 2012-15-05 07:27
Gasoline grade (by check) AI-95-3
Price, rub / l 27.60
Record holder for aromatics, typical “heavy” fuel. It hardly fit into class 3. But it did fit in! The specific composition positively affected the power, caloric fuel. Which should be in the North.
+ Good motor performance, normal price.
- A lot of sulfur and aromatics, there were pitches.
10 Location and time of refueling - AZK No. 2 IP Sherstakov V. D. 2012-15-05 11:49 AM
Gasoline brand (per check) - PremiumEuro-95
Price, rub / l - 28.60
Honest grade 4, but the content of MTBE is clearly high. Although the requirements of the Technical Regulation does not contradict. Decent octane supply, a little sulfur - you can safely pour into any car.
+ It is quite normal fuel.
- A little expensive, and there is a lot of oxygen in it. The motor feels it.
11 Location and time of refueling - Tikhvin-Petrol LLC, gas station No. 4 2012-15-05 15:44
Gasoline brand (per check) - Au 96
Price, rub / l - 28.70
Class 3 is also quite worthy. But there are a lot of oxygenates - the motor does not really like this. At the same time a little expensive. And almost 9% of MTBE motor is not too pleasant. Therefore, the shortage of power is obtained. And they didn’t reach the promised 96th …
+ Grade 3 is quite drawn.
- A little expensive for "class 3"!
12 Location and time of refueling - OJSC Karelianefteproduct Petrozavodsk TU AZK-2 05.16.2012 12:04
Gasoline brand (by check) - Gasoline-95 class 4
Price, rub / l - 27.80
Very decent fuel at an affordable price. In terms of aromatics, the claimed class 4 confirms on the very verge, but in all other respects everything is fair. A low content of MTBE is produced in its manufacturer by a rather serious refinery.
+ Low sulfur, benzene. Good octane margin.
- There are pitches.
Refueling several times at an inconspicuous gas station: gasoline was 2 rubles cheaper than others, but the car really flew. Then this point was covered. What kind of gas could it be?
It can be assumed that that gas station turned out to be a normal owner, who did not make a crazy mark-up and bought fuel from the right wholesale supplier working with a good oil refinery. But another option is more likely (we had similar cases when cheap gas seemed to be cooler than the branded one): an additive increasing the octane number was added directly to the fuel truck using a high-precision dosing device, namely a dirty bucket. And instead of the expected 92nd, the 95th was pouring from a pistol. But the consequences can be sad: motor overgrowth with dirt, valve hangs, coking of piston rings. Yes, not all goodies are good.
I read that the 98th is produced only at a few refineries, and the rest high-octane fuel, including the 92nd (!), Is obtained through the “noble blend” of the 80th with additives. How true is this today?
In 2011, slightly more than 6% of the 80th was produced at all refineries, and about 80% of the 92nd. Therefore, there is practically no basis for a “noble blend”, and such an operation today is not profitable in finance. There are options when “samovar” gasoline or gasoline from a mini-refinery obtained from gas condensate is taken as the base fuel. However, not a single serious operator of the gasoline market will do such a thing, because such surrogates are detected at the first inspection.
Another thing is that in Russia the old refineries, built in the middle of the last century and practicing the same ancient fuel production technologies, predominate. From there, the base fuels of the Euro-minus 1 standard are taken. But gradually the situation improves, as evidenced by this and our study.
What class of gasoline is they pouring me into, if only the octane number is written at the gas station? If I have a car for Euro 4, where can I refuel it? And what?
What is being refueled - see the passport for fuel, which should be presented at the gas station upon request. Fuel labeling must comply with the new GOST R 54283–2010 “Motor fuels. Unified designation of motor gasolines and diesel fuels in circulation in the territory of the Russian Federation.”
According to this GOST, all sorts of “premiums” and “super” went into oblivion, everything became more clear and simple. Now in the designation of gasoline there is only an octane number determined by the research method, and the ecological class of fuel. Например, «АИ-95-4» - топливо автомобильное, с ОЧИ не ниже 95 единиц, 4-го экологического класса.
Заправлять машину под Евро-4 желательно топливом соответствующего экологического класса. Если периодически заливать топливо классом ниже, сразу ничего страшного не произойдет, - но, может быть, в отдаленном будущем снизится ресурс катализатора.
У иностранцев на колонках ничего про «Евро» не написано: там что, Евро-4 или Евро-5 всюду? И как их октановые числа соотносятся с нашими?
Отвечать за весь мир сложно… Учитывая их развитую систему добровольной сертификации, а также судебную практику защиты прав потребителей, торговать бодягой там просто опасно. Но одно дело, например, Европа, другое - Казахстан или Эфиопия. а ведь это тоже иностранцы.