XENON - Hurray?
Xenon headlights were first lit in 1991 (it was just an anniversary!) At the BMW Seven. And since then disputes have not ceased: some (who have it) come in praise of the new world, others (who do not have it) showered with curses. Moreover, both sides are right. First, listen to the arguments for. So, xenon light is more than twice brighter than halogen: 3200 lm of luminous flux versus 1500 lm of the best samples of H7. Xenon lamps are also much more economical: they give 91 lm per watt of power versus 26 lm / W for halogens. This allows you to spend 35 watts on one headlight instead of 55 watts. In addition, new xenon lamps last 2, 000 hours compared to the previous 450–500 hours for halogen ones. They are not afraid of vibration, because you can’t shake off the plasma arc like a hair from an incandescent thread.
In this spotlight, in fact, the same arc burns as on the headband
In this spotlight, in fact, the same arc burns as on the headband. In this spotlight, in fact, the same arc burns as on the headband.
Back in 1802, the Russian scientist Vasily Petrov decided to check the electrical conductivity of coal. He laid a carbon rod on the glass and attached wires from the high-voltage battery to it. But the coal accidentally broke in half - and in the place of the fault both halves quickly became hot, and then a dazzling light that had never been seen before flashed between them. So the arc discharge was opened. Then he was called the "luminiferous phenomenon." We decided to get our own Zarulevsky rank! Instead of coal, they took two pencils, and instead of a battery, 220 V from the network. An electric fireplace was connected in series as a ballast, otherwise the editorial office would simply have knocked out traffic jams. After a few seconds, the “luminiferous phenomenon” appeared before us in all its glory - with brightness, heat and hissing, and the photographer who captured this experience for you rubbed his sore eyes for a long time. We do not recommend repeating it yourself: certain skills are required … Actually, this is how xenon headlights work. Only instead of pencils and electric fireplaces other components were used there.
Xenon lamps of high power are arranged, in principle, in the same way
Xenon lamps of high power are arranged, in principle, in the same way. Xenon lamps of high power are arranged, in principle, in the same way.
WHAT DOES SHE NEED?
A xenon lamp is not enough for burning an on-board voltage of 14 V. It is necessary to add the so-called inverters to the circuit, which increase its level. Previously, it was 300 V, today it is possible to do with a combination of 85 V and 400 Hz and even 42 volts! By the way, here is the conclusion: the lamp is different, the lamp must be careful when replacing. For example, lamps of the D1, D2, D3 and D4 series are not interchangeable! In addition, there is also a letter R or S behind, which also needs to be taken into account.
However, you can not do with one inverter: neither 42, nor 85, nor even 300 V will break through the gap between the electrodes when the lamp is turned on. Moreover, the gap here is larger than in the spark plug, and the gas pressure in the bulb is higher than in the combustion chamber. Therefore, a high-voltage (25, 000 V) ignition pulse is also needed. The device generating it can be either external (for example, D1 lamps), or integrated (D1S lamps). Note that the breakdown voltage threshold is one of the reasons why xenon is chosen: it has the lowest among inert gases. And if there were air in the flask, with such pressure and clearance, much larger kilovolts would be needed! Other reasons lie in the cost and in the technology of accurate gas dosage. In general, the optimum ratio was found. It is not surprising that the name "xenon" was attached to such headlights. Although, looking ahead, we say that the design itself is somewhat different from that of the halogen ones.
Xenon light takes time to flare up to its rated brightness. And this is not milli-, but quite a full 15 (!) Seconds - it is during this period that the cold lamp reaches its full brightness. (No, the lamp, of course, flashes immediately, but after a second it gives only 25% of the light output.) Note that xenon lamps do not like working in an unsteady mode, so blinking them is like getting into your wallet.
An important feature of xenon: the relatively short-wavelength radiation of an arc discharge is more strongly scattered by microroughnesses. Therefore, the reflector of such a headlight should be smoother (this is not visible to the eye) than for a halogen one. The same applies to the diffuser: it must be clean! That is why it is strictly forbidden to peck at funny kits for installing xenon directly into the headlight of the Lada. There is another nuance: many buyers of the so-called cheap xenon completely lose their high beam! There is only one light bulb, and far from bi-xenon …
Xenon lamp (pros call them burners) D2S. The inner micro-bulb, in which the arc burns, and the protective outer bulb are clearly visible
Xenon lamp (pros call them burners) D2S. The inner micro-bulb, in which the arc burns, and the protective outer bulb are clearly visible. Xenon lamp (pros call them burners) D2S. The inner micro-bulb, in which the arc burns, and the protective outer bulb are clearly visible.
And by the way, what is biksenon?
No, in such lamps twice as much xenon is not pumped. This is just an analog of the double-thread halogen H4 used in the combined headlight of the main and dipped beam. Since it is impossible to make two discharge gaps, a mechanism (solenoid or electric motor) was placed in the lamp base, moving it back and forth a few millimeters. So get the necessary light distribution in each mode.
WHY SO EXPENSIVE?
The brightness of the headlights is, of course, good. However, when they shine in the eyes of the oncoming driver, it is not only dangerous, but also harmful. Happened to cast a curious glance to where the sheaf of sparks comes out during electric arc welding? Here the effect is about the same. Of course, glass lamps and headlights reduce the proportion of aggressive ultraviolet radiation, but still … To avoid trouble, with xenon, they usually use an automatic leveling system and a headlight washer. Add the cost of the lamps themselves, the electronics that service them - and you will understand why real xenon is so expensive. I must say that manufacturers of cheap "Chinese" xenon do not bother too much to ensure a stable position of the arc between the electrodes. The discharge dances, jumps out of focus, and the beam begins to rush, negating all measures against blinding. We also note that in fog, xenon light is strongly scattered and creates a continuous veil in front of the driver. Finally, over time, xenon lamps fade much more strongly than halogen ones (by the end of life, the H7 lamp loses only 20% of its original brightness, and xenon lamps - all 45%). True, this will happen in a longer period, but who will change not the “burnt out”, but simply faded, expensive lamp?
The washer is an obligatory accessory of the company xenon, but in our conditions this thing is almost useless
The washer is an obligatory accessory of the company xenon, but in our conditions this thing is almost useless. The washer is an obligatory accessory of the company xenon, but in our conditions this thing is almost useless.
Xenon gives a full, brightly glowing plasma only at hefty pressure. While the lamp is off (or lying in a box), it is 20 bar (be careful not to break it!). During operation, the pressure rises to as much as a hundred, but here the headlight protects. Some lamps contain mercury, which is also not very good for health. Therefore, such products should not be thrown into the bucket, but disposed of. However, the latest samples (D3 and D4) do without mercury, which was replaced by sodium. This at the same time gives the light a warm shade.