Car of the future according to Aryamov
Car of the future according to Aryamov Car of the future according to Aryamov
Probably, each of us more than once had to hear enthusiastic epithets about the latest cars. And they are convenient, and economical, and safe, and … In short, almost perfect. And how many different kinds of ultramodern servos are in them! The word "innovative" began to be so often found in texts that it managed to fill the edge of impressive size … It seems that the car is now the top of perfection. It is terrible to think what awaits him in 20-30 years, where his progress curve will lead him. Some journalists are trying to look into the future and boldly predict the appearance of cars powered by hydrogen, gas, biofuels, electric cars … Unless anyone dared to propose with a nuclear reactor. Some arguments look very convincing. Interesting, but how will it really be?
In order to assess how much such forecasts can come true, it is convenient to look back and see how the car of the near future was imagined some 50 years ago. Let me remind you. The pride of the Soviet automobile industry was Volga GAZ-21, ZIM and Moskvich-402.
The magazine "Behind the wheel." July 1957 issue, page 14, article with the significant title “MOVEMENT SPEED AND SECURITY PROBLEMS”. Written about the car of the future, as it was seen in the middle of the century, and it was not written by anyone, but by an engineer. His last name is Aryamov.
(For reference. V. Aryamov, together with Yu. Dolmatovsky, developed a promising model designed to change the GAZ-M-20 Pobeda, the restyling option is now known as Pobeda-NAMI, it was, in fact, one of the options for the first Volga ").
What did they predict?
The author guessed a lot. “The reliability and efficiency of the brakes, steering and chassis assemblies are becoming increasingly important. The improvement of these units is achieved, on the one hand, by applying powerful servo mechanisms, increasing the length of the springs, strengthening the shock absorbers, etc.” And in fact, the effectiveness of the brakes grew and is growing, as well as the steering and chassis. True, largely due to comfort. With servomechanisms (brake booster, power steering, etc.), I also guessed right. Unless I saw other elastic elements, except springs, which is strange: then springs were already in full use, and the Citroen DS sported a hydropneumatic suspension. However, these are the details.
“Recently, separate hydraulic actuators for front and rear brakes have begun to spread, reducing the risk of failure when the hose breaks.” In fact, on the Volga there was ONE hydraulic drive for all four wheels. And when the hose broke, it remained without brakes … Here, the author also predicted correctly.
“More efficient disc brakes are coming up on production cars.” And again in the bullseye. If you do not pay attention to such a trifle as a mistake in efficiency. In fact, disc brakes have taken root because they have an almost linear braking response depending on the pedal being pressed, that is, they are simply easier to control (i.e., to dose).
“Servo mechanisms are installed on modern machines. They allow you to raise or lower the windows, adjust the position of the seats with a simple click of a button, without distracting from observing the road. " And it was written in 1957! But such servo mechanisms were widely used only in the second half of the nineties …
"An outside mirror allows the driver to see overtaking cars without distracting attention from observing the road." What time! There was no standard exterior mirrors. However, as an option - too. However, the author predicted the appearance of these necessary attributes of the car accurately. True, in the singular - the mirror was conceived of one, left. Did not take into account traffic density …
“In inclement weather, the ability to monitor the road is almost entirely determined by the shape and coverage of the wipers. Some cars put spraying devices that wash dried dirt off the windows.” Guessed again. And the growth of the surface being cleaned, and glass washers. It is curious that the word “washer” did not exist yet.
“The most common location of the headlight light switch - under the driver’s left foot - does not always make it possible to switch the light at the right time, since the leg is often on the clutch pedal at this time. On some vehicles, the switch is placed under the steering wheel so that you can reach it with your finger without removing your hands from the steering wheel.” And then our author looked into the water! The near-far foot switch has become such an archaism that many do not even know about its existence.
“Various safe rudder designs have been offered for a long time, but they have appeared on production cars only recently. The best constructive solution that has not yet been put into practice is likely to be a telescopic spring steering column, which also allows you to adjust the position of the steering wheel relative to the seat. " For a long time, about 40 years old, without exception, all cars are equipped with safety steering columns.
“For small passengers on cars of the latest releases abroad, special seats with straps are installed.” When, when did we have child seats? And in what year are traffic rules obligated to apply them? I remind you: the article was published in 1957 …
Is Vladimir Ivanovich Aryamov a clairvoyant? Of course not. Everything that he foresaw, flows out of ordinary logic. And in some ways he was mistaken. For example:
“Placing the gear lever on the steering wheel and in the near future automatic clutch - these are currently the main safety features of the vehicle’s design.” The lever on the manual gearbox on the steering column did not take root - the convenience in this arrangement is doubtful, and the reliability is so-so. Automatic clutch has also sunk into oblivion.
In another place, Vladimir Ivanovich does not voice his thoughts, but the plans of GAZ. “An automatic transmission will also be installed on the Volga.” What rainbow projections … It did not work out at GAZ with a gun. Only on the "Seagull" and put …
“Panoramic windshields and rear windows provide particularly good visibility.” And panoramic windows disappeared during the evolution of the car. Mostly for security reasons.
The author did not say a word about the environmental friendliness and economy of the car, it never occurred to him that navigation systems would be possible. And also - ABS systems and the like. Front-wheel drive - and he was left without attention. Yes, a lot of things are missing. I believe the reader will be able to continue the list.
The most amusing misconceptions turned out to be in the drawings (by the way, their author is also Aryamov). See for yourself:
- A transparent plow on the hood casts off midges and dust from the windshield.
- high "tails" of the body, like the plumage of an arrow, improve the stability of the car in the air flow.
The naivety with which the author seriously discusses such things only says that in the 50s, car designers had a very vague idea of aerodynamics. It is clear that the tail keels, as well as the plow, will not be of any use.
It's funny that the front seat is solid, without the slightest hint of lateral support. And his profile leaves much to be desired. Obviously, ergonomics experts decided that it was enough to make it soft …
Please note: the drive wheels are rear. The rear axle suspension is independent. And, curiously, the power flow to the differential is transmitted hydraulically! This is from the realm of fiction …
In the illustrations you can see a huge steering wheel with a thin rim and a recessed hub for safety reasons. The huge ring of the horn - apparently, it was supposed to be used often. Upholstery Clock. Gear lever under the steering wheel
What is the conclusion of all the errors and coincidences? It is simple: No matter how praised the latest car, no matter how lauded its convenience, efficiency and safety, it seems perfect only to us, contemporaries. After some 30–40 years, it will become clear how naive our estimates were. In the end, Moskvich-402 was once considered the crown of automobile progress.