Irina Polyakova, candidate of economic sciences
Irina Polyakova, candidate of economic sciences Irina Polyakova, candidate of economic sciences
Forums, festivals, sports - it is the transport that takes the first blow, both in terms of the rolling stock infrastructure and the organization of its work and the level of training. Especially “difficult” for the transport system are, of course, sporting events. And in the near future, we will not have a shortage of them - in 2013 the Universiade in Kazan should be held, in 2014 - the Olympic Games in Sochi, in 2016 - the world hockey championship, in 2018 - the world football championship. In addition to these planned events, force majeure also happens, such as the world championship in figure skating, which was postponed to Moscow due to an accident at a nuclear power plant in Japan and was held in almost normal mode at the end of April this year.
How quickly, conveniently and safely athletes and guests will travel during games and matches, how organized a large number of passengers will be delivered to the host country and sent home - the success of the event depends on all this. And no matter what type of transport tourists, athletes and guests get, in the initial and final stages when moving around the city, automobile transport will certainly be a priority. We will proceed from this axiom.
Transport zoning and route network. Scheme 1
Transport zoning and route network. Scheme 1 Transport zoning and route network. Scheme 1
For cultural, historical centers, resort towns, a seasonal influx of organized and not so guests and tourists is a familiar phenomenon. The season is usually stretched for several months, all services are prepared in advance for it - the residential sector, including the hotel sector, public catering in all its manifestations, cultural and entertainment, medical and, of course, transport. The consumer of services, going to a resort or along a tourist route, approximately represents what kind of service, including transport, he can count on for his money. Given the prospects for the development of a resort or tourist center, a transport system is also planned and developed. Problems, of course, can arise and arise if the actual number of guests deviates strongly in one direction or another from the planned one. But all these issues are resolved as they become available in the working order. But as for events at the level of the Olympic Games and world championships, there should be no punctures during their conduct.
With specific examples of Kazan (Universiade 2013), Sochi (Olympics 2014), we will see how these cities are prepared in terms of transport support. So, Kazan.
It is clear to a specialist, and not even a specialist, that before the summer of 2013, a tremendous amount of work will have to be done involving all kinds of resources, primarily financial. Most of the funds will be needed to prepare transport infrastructure and provide transport services. International requirements for the transport support of events of this level are very strict - athletes must get from their places of residence to sports facilities in no more than 20 minutes. in the city - now the time in Kazan is 54 minutes. (!). Moreover, to get as comfortable as possible.
The scheme of transport service. Scheme 2
The scheme of transport service. Scheme 2 Transport service scheme. Scheme 2
Speaking at a meeting on the preparation of the transport infrastructure of Kazan for the Universiade in June 2009, the Minister of Transport of the Russian Federation, Igor Levitin, noted that today the transport infrastructure, which was created for the 1000th anniversary of Kazan, has almost completely exhausted itself. According to the research and design institute of territorial development and transport infrastructure, 80% of the city’s backbone network today is not able to realize additional transport flow: 20% of the network has run out of bandwidth, is in constant traffic congestion, 60% of the backbones are operating at capacity bandwidth. Agree that it is quite difficult to meet international standards in such a situation.
But Kazan has certain advantages. Infrastructure projects, despite all their complexity, are easier to implement in Kazan than in other regions. “There are no problems with the allocation of land. As the experience of Sochi and Vladivostok (where the APEC 2012 summit will be held) has shown, this takes considerable time,”said Igor Levitin.
And one more distinctive moment: the infrastructure, which is being prepared for the Universiade, will be enough for the city somewhere until 2020 at the current pace of development. Thus, the transport support of the Universiade will be fully used by the citizens and guests of Kazan. This distinguishes Kazan Universiade from the elite resort of Sochi after the 2014 Olympics and even more vague prospects for the practical use of transport facilities after the APEC summit on Russky Island.
Since the Universiade will be held seven months before the Olympics in Sochi, Kazan will serve as a kind of testing ground for running the work of all services serving the games, including transport. For three years, they have been preparing the transport complex for the games in Tatarstan since the fall of 2008, when the main directions for its modernization in all types of transport were determined. Here are some of them.
Transport zoning and route network. Scheme 3
Transport zoning and route network. Scheme 3 Transport zoning and route network. Scheme 3
The lion's share of projects for the preparation of road infrastructure account for large-scale reconstruction and construction of roads and interchanges directly in Kazan. As for the federal facilities, this is, first of all, the construction of an exit from the city onto the Volga M-7 highway via the Mamadyshsky tract and the construction of a highway section that will connect the beginning of the Kazan-Orenburg federal highway and the M-7 highway Volga ", construction of a bypass road with. Bilyarsk, as well as road repairs in the direction Kazan - Bolgar in Alekseevsky, Alkeevsky and Spassky districts of the republic. The construction and reconstruction of transport facilities of the Universiade will cost, according to preliminary estimates, about 288 billion rubles. Not only gigantic means, modern equipment and the latest technologies will be required, but also a new vision of the problems of the road transport industry both by specialists and residents of Kazan. The latter are mainly worried about how the modernization of the city’s road network will increase transport accessibility and living standards. Ideally, improving road transport infrastructure requires the construction of 270 kilometers of roads, 37 road junctions, two overpasses and five road bridges. To upgrade urban passenger transport by 2013, it is necessary to purchase 800 city and tourist buses, 250 trolley buses, 125 high-speed trams, lay 144 kilometers of new trolley lines, and reconstruct 80 kilometers of tram tracks. To complete the first metro line, it is necessary to build five new stations.
The issue price is 38.2 billion rubles. Given the tight deadlines, the capabilities of the federal and republican budgets, the prospects for attracting private capital (using the PPP mechanism, in particular, Kazan International Airport is being reconstructed), sequestration of financing is inevitable. But at the federal level, and in the republic itself, they understand that without a radical reconstruction of the road network, it’s not that the Universiade cannot be held - the city will simply rise. To solve this problem, Kazan developed a program for the development of the road network for 2009-2013, the implementation of which should facilitate the life of the big city and ideally save it from traffic jams. Universiade 2013 will serve only as an additional impetus for the development of the road-street network of the capital.
Today, the transport load of the main thoroughfares of the city reaches 3, 500-6, 000 physical units per hour, more than 70% of them work with overloads, traffic occurs at low speeds until it stops completely during peak hours. This problem is especially worrying about the old, historical part of the city.
Kazan has another specific feature - the so-called bottlenecks, overloaded with traffic streets. Given this feature, the developers of the program included in it the completion of the construction of the Great Kazan Ring, which includes 13 different objects and 6 pedestrian crossings, and the Small Kazan Ring with two transport interchanges.
Nizhny Novgorod Region. Scheme 4
Nizhny Novgorod Region. Scheme 4 Nizhny Novgorod region. Scheme 4
According to the general plan in the capital of Tatarstan by 2013, more than 12 transport interchanges should appear. This will redistribute the traffic along the streets in the city center.
In the old, busy part of the city, tram tracks are of great social importance to the townspeople. Therefore, their fears regarding the safety of tram lines are quite natural. They will be saved, but the routes will change.
The city’s transport “traffic jam” problem is going to be solved by 2013, by the Universiade, but even if traffic jams do not completely disappear by the scheduled time, new roads and modern transport interchanges will greatly facilitate the life of citizens.
The creation of comfortable transport conditions for guests and residents of the city during the Universiade and after it is associated with the development of not only the street-road network, but also high-speed types of extra-street passenger transport, as well as with the improvement of the route network of ground passenger transport. To improve the structure of the route network of urban transport passengers in Kazan … counted.
The fact is that during the development of the current transport scheme, many of today's city facilities were not even mentioned. And now new quarters, sports and entertainment complexes have appeared, several Universiade facilities are open for sports. The directions and volumes of passenger flows, on the basis of which today's trolleybus routes were built, have changed. It was in the city executive committee that they decided to redefine the route network load, traffic volumes and passenger traffic at stopping points for each route and mode of transport.
Passengers were counted for 15 days, from December 10 to 25, 2009. As a result, a complete picture emerged from the collected and processed data. In total, 6799 flights were examined on 93 bus, 8 tram and 14 trolleybus routes, counting incoming and outgoing at 8132 stops. The data was sent to St. Petersburg for processing, after which Kazan received a new transportation scheme for the Universiade 2013.
But there is a high probability that, together with a change in the transport scheme, a redistribution of the transportation market will occur, and, quite possibly, a renewal of the fleet. The fact is that by 2012 the leasing term of buses from many Kazan carriers expires. And the technical condition of the already very battered Chinese leasing buses in 2012 will surely be enough reason to decisively drive them out of the streets on the eve of the Universiade. The next event in chronological order will be the Olympic Games in 2014. We already wrote about the preparation of the region’s transport system for the games at the initial stage (see Flight No. 4-2008).
Speaking at the conference on the preparation of transport infrastructure for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Moscow in April this year, Alexander Vorobyov, Deputy Director General of the Olympic Transport Directorate of ANO, spoke about domestic experience gained in preparing for major sporting events. The main topics of transport planning in the preparation of the Olympic Games in accordance with the IOC technical guidelines include the modernization and construction of transport infrastructure, road transport management, modernization of the public transport system, the organization of transport services for Olympic facilities, traffic management, the creation of a transport information system, planning and escort.
In each of these areas there are already concrete results, but the most interesting and well-developed, in my opinion, is the management of road transport. The topic is multifaceted, including issues such as service planning, that is, determining the mobility needs of all client groups, calculating transport chains, and service plans. The next question is the acquisition of rolling stock, which involves the calculation of the required quantity by type and capacity, the determination of acquisition options. Then it is necessary to calculate the required number of drivers and personnel, their selection, training and accommodation. Particularly noteworthy is the management of fleets, which implies the calculation of the required number and distribution of rolling stock, as well as their construction and operation.
In relation to the area where the Olympic Games will be held in 2014, a route network has been developed that serves all transport zones from Dagomys to the Olympic Park, taking into account the needs of permanent residents in each locality, hotel places and places in the private sector (Scheme 1).
The transport service scheme in the Olympic region looks very clear and convincing. For residents in each zone, maximum transport accessibility is ensured due to the capabilities of almost all types of transport: the main railway, railway lines within the region, numerous bus lines, cable cars directly to the Olympic venues, mountain and feeder bus routes. All routes have intersection points, which increases the mobility of movement of participants and guests of the Olympics. The railway station in Sochi and the airport in Adler are connected to the general scheme by reliable railway and bus connections directly with the facilities at the points of Esto-Sadok, Alpika-Service and Olympic Park (scheme 2).
The transport directorate is responsible not only for arranging the infrastructure, but also for organizing the transportation process itself. And this means working with leasing companies to purchase buses under a financial lease scheme, concluding contracts with carriers for servicing the Games. According to preliminary estimates, 2843 bus drivers, 4816 car drivers, 686 technical personnel are required. Work is underway to recruit them, to study in the regions of Russia, and then it is necessary to organize their transportation to places of study and internship in Sochi.
A special issue is the creation and management of special fleets. In total, it is planned to create 10 special fleets, including their deployment in the villages of Esto-Sadok and Krasnaya Polyana. To accommodate the estimated number of buses and cars in their territories, appropriate sections are needed, which, given the acute shortage of land in the Olympic region, is not easy to allocate. So far, the location of only one permanent fleet, as well as a traffic control center, has been determined. Two more car fleets are essentially car parks with auxiliary facilities, while the rest is resolving the land issue (Scheme 3). Note that this is only one topic - the management of road transport.
In the future, when communications of different types of transport will be "brought" to each other, it will be necessary to organize their work in the mode of a transport hub. For each object - both competitive and non-competitive - it is necessary to develop a transportation plan, starting with the procedure for accessing vehicles and issuing a parking permit …
The head of the bid committee for the 2018 World Cup, Alexei Sorokin, speaking at the same conference, began with numbers: about 2 million tourists were present at the 2006 World Cup in Germany, 400 thousand were in South Africa at the 2010 World Cup, and Russia is expected to attend the 2018 World Cup about 1 million people. Championship games will be held in at least 13 cities of the country (their exact list will be known by March 2013). On average, a championship guest will be able to make up to 14 (!) Flights or travels across the country using all types of transport, which must operate according to FIFA requirements, that is, it is comfortable, reliable and safe. In addition, ground movement within and between cities (!) Should be free for tourists. And immediately it becomes clear that the 2018 World Cup is, first of all, a challenge to the transport infrastructure of Russia, to which it should give a decent answer.
A bit of history. In order to ensure that the 2006 World Cup transport connection met international standards, Germany, a country where all types of transport are developed, spent 3.6 billion euros. Transport costs in South Africa as a whole exceeded $ 7 billion, with $ 4 billion spent on rail. Expenses of Brazil, where the 2014 World Cup will be held, are already planned at the level of 9.3 billion dollars, of which 3 billion are allocated for airport infrastructure.
Of course, Russia with its enormous distances expect no less expenses, but it would be wrong to attribute them only to the 2018 World Cup. Transport infrastructure has always served and will serve as a catalyst for the development of the region and the country as a whole, and the effectiveness of its use only increases over time. In the meantime, at the stage of preparation for the championship, we need to spend money and develop the transport infrastructure exactly as FIFA requires. For example, the capacity of the airport of the city where the matches will be held should, in addition to the current passenger flow, serve 7-8 thousand people in 10 hours. At the same time, the construction of temporary terminals is allowed, but air navigation services and safety must be at the highest level. There are requirements of the international federation regarding the compliance of the stadium occupancy with a certain number of fans who can reach the city by plane. There is also a time frame for communication between cities by road and rail. All this taken together will serve as an impetus for the development of road construction, high-speed rail services, new directions of air transport.
In addition to arranging transport communications, the championship organizers must take into account the needs of all client groups - FIFA delegations, official guests, VIPs, fans, media representatives precisely in terms of transport preferences. For example, one client group needs a 24-hour bus, and another needs a one-hour limousine. The choice of the most profitable types of transport links, rolling stock, drivers, maintenance personnel - all this will have to face the 2018 World Cup. The list of cities in which the championship is supposed to be held is quite impressive and is as follows: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Volgograd, Krasnodar, Sochi, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Saransk, Kazan, Samara, Rostov-on-Don.
The success of the 2018 World Cup will primarily depend on how the regions prepare for it. If there is no doubt about the capabilities of Moscow and St. Petersburg, then the infrastructure of other cities - both sports and transport, requires serious preparation. Director of the Department of Transport of the Nizhny Novgorod Region, Alexander Zubarev, praised the city’s already available opportunities for hosting championship games and really presented what was to be done. First of all, we are talking about high-speed highways 1 and 2 "Moscow - Nizhny Novgorod" with a reduction in travel time to three hours, and then to one and a half hours. Инвестиции в проект «Сапсан» на 2011–2013 годы потребуют 1, 5 млрд рублей, на 2011–2017 годы - 330 млрд рублей. Но главное - это дороги.