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Transport Of Megacities


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Video: Transport Of Megacities

Video: Transport Of Megacities
Video: Urbanization and the future of cities - Vance Kite 2023, March
Transport Of Megacities
Transport Of Megacities

evening traffic jams

вечерние пробки
вечерние пробки

evening traffic jams evening traffic jams

The problem of the movement of citizens and the transport of goods along city streets is a headache for the leadership of not only Moscow, but also all megacities. And if you unravel it in the center, then with the tried measures you can solve problems in most cities of the country. That is why it is worth taking a closer look not at the first actions to solve the transport problem of Moscow (the work is just beginning), not at the details of the plans (they are adjusted as the situation is analyzed and solutions are worked out), but at the vectors of the application of efforts - which way will the reorganization of traffic.

It should be noted that in almost all the discussions that took place in the media, they discussed, first of all, the options for organizing the movement - you need to build a junction there, rearrange signs there, and there will be free streets. Yes, this must be done, but the city can’t cope with so much transport, and traffic will become freer when fewer cars move along the streets. Not the same amount at different times to “smear” rush hour, but simply less. Measures are already being taken to reduce passenger transport in the streets - intercepting parking lots right near the Moscow Ring Road, increasing the network of city parking lots, developing public transport and providing it with lanes far from the city and in the region, and much more. But what about the trucks? They will also become smaller. A significant part of the goods was imported to Moscow not for residents, but for reloading and further transportation throughout the country - this problem is solved by the transfer of transport and logistics complexes to the Central Ring Road. The more trucks are in traffic jams, the more they are needed to deliver the same consignments - the lower the efficiency and more traffic jams. Work has already begun to transfer part of the freight transport involved in the delivery of goods to stores for night delivery. But this applies, first of all, to large retail chains. And for small companies, maintaining their own fleet can become economically unprofitable, and therefore it is impossible to create large transport companies that will fulfill orders from outside organizations.

Moscow movement

Московское движение
Московское движение

Moscow movement Moscow movement

Assessment of the situation

The sharp increase in motorization, which is characteristic, first of all, for large Russian cities, has led to the fact that the car is no longer a luxury. But did he become a means of transportation? If we talk about a personal car, then everyone is free to choose for themselves - a crush in public transport or standing, or rather, sitting in traffic jams. Car carriers have no such choice, nor is there a normal organization of the work of freight vehicles in a big city. If someone still has illusions that the “invisible” hand of the market will regulate traffic routes, determine the optimal number of cars, increase the efficiency of their use, then the data shown in table 1 will dispel the latest misconceptions. For the period from 1998 to 2008, all (!) Technical and operational indicators of the use of the Moscow freight truck fleet deteriorated. As a result, in comparison with 1998, the transportation of the same amount of goods in 2008 required 3.8 times more cars, therefore, the load on the city’s transport network increased, and the transport component in the price of any goods increased.

But it is precisely from an economic point of view that one should evaluate the options for the development of freight automobile transport in Moscow in the future as the largest basic industry in the urban economy, the most important component of the production and social infrastructure of the city. Qualitative characteristics of the level of transport services are determined by the speed, timeliness, rhythm, safety and environmental friendliness of the work of all systems of road freight transport. The increase in the speed of delivery of goods gives a tangible economic effect, expressed in the release of working capital of enterprises. The timeliness of road transport services affects the value of insurance stocks of products in the warehouses of consignees, which is important both to maintain the continuity of production and to supply the population.

Over the past two decades, from 1990 to 2009, the number of trucks registered in the city of Moscow increased from 79.3 to 299.8 thousand units, or 3.8 times. At the same time, the average annual productivity of one truck decreased by more than 10 times (!).

Table 1

Таблица 1
Таблица 1

Table 1 table 1

Since the beginning of economic reforms, the non-state sector has occupied a dominant position in the field of trucking, the fleet of which belongs to individuals and non-governmental organizations of various sectors of the economy. So, by 2010, the share of the public freight truck fleet was only 10.4%, owned by individuals - 49.9% and managed by organizations in various sectors of the economy - 39.9%, including 2.5% from foreign property.

The high growth of the truck fleet is due to several reasons: liberal conditions for access to freight traffic, active support for small businesses with serious tax benefits, as well as wide opportunities for the “shadow” business in this area.

table 2

Таблица 2
Таблица 2

Table 2 table 2

The main disadvantages are associated with the low technical level and the same state of its production base. So, by 2010, only 35.7% of trucks had a service life of less than 5 years, and 34.1% were in operation for more than 10 years.

By 2010, freight transport organizations of various forms of ownership occupied about 350 hectares of the territory of the city of Moscow. It would seem that the territory is huge, but this makes up only 15% of the regulatory needs of the actual fleet, even without taking into account external vehicles used in the territory of the city of Moscow. Thus, almost 8 out of every 10 cars are not currently provided with the necessary storage and maintenance conditions, which negatively affects the safety of their operation, harms the urban environment, and complicates the road situation.

The level of safety of road freight transport remains extremely low. From 2007 to 2009 alone, 6962 accidents involving trucks occurred in the city of Moscow, as a result of which 670 were killed and 7, 740 injured. According to the most conservative estimates, this is equivalent to socio-economic damage in the amount of at least 50 billion rubles.

The gross regional product (GRP) of Moscow in value terms increased in 2009 by 2.12 times in comparison with 2000. Over the same period, the inflation growth index was 3.11. Thus, the GRP of Moscow in physical terms amounted to only 68.2% of the corresponding level of 2000 in 2009. At the same time, the truck fleet of the city of Moscow increased from 219.6 to 299.8 thousand vehicles. As a result, only in the last decade almost 2 times more trucks were involved in servicing a comparable GRP in Moscow than in 2000. Calculations show that at present the city’s freight fleet is almost 50 thousand units higher than the actual transportation requirements even with the prevailing extremely low level of technical and operational indicators for its use.

Scheme of the central ring road

Схема центральной кольцевой автодороги
Схема центральной кольцевой автодороги

Scheme of the central ring road Scheme of the central ring road

Increasing the productivity of rolling stock at least to the level that existed under the conditions of a centralized public transportation system will already reduce the share of the transport component in the cost of production of urban industries in the same proportion, and reduce the load on the Moscow road network. One would like to say: "Back to the USSR."

Currently, the need for drivers is about 350-370 thousand people, and it is covered by residents only 30-40%. Thus, there is a decline in the prestige of the profession and the interest of Muscovites in this work. Moscow is forced to attract from its implementation from 200 to 250 thousand nonresident drivers.

road situation in winter

ситуация на дорогах зимой
ситуация на дорогах зимой

road situation in winter road situation in winter

Is there a solution?

What is needed above all is a new long-term strategy for the development of freight vehicles, which defines the main directions and targets for the period up to 2025.

As expected, the concept of strategy was developed in two versions: inertial and innovative (table. 2). The first option preserves not the best position of freight vehicles, which took shape in 2008. An innovative option in terms of quantitative economic parameters will “return” freight vehicles in 1990 - as it now turns out, this is far from the worst year. But in order to return to the past in the future, everyone interested in the development of the capital's market for trucking needs to work, in many areas, in order for Moscow freight transport to develop on the basis of:

■ the balance of interests of the city of Moscow, freight forwarders and consumers of their services;

■ priorities for a regulated and informationally transparent road transport market;

■ the priorities of professional, conscientious, and law-abiding entities in trucking;

■ modern standards and rules for the transport;

■ priority use of advanced technology and innovative technologies;

■ equal conditions of competition for all forms and scales of the motor transport business, directly related to the level of its professional reputation;

■ integration processes that form an effective system of public freight transport by road;

■ optimal transport links, rational cargo flows, and well-founded schemes for the placement of the main objects of cargo formation and cargo consumption;

■ balanced development of the truck fleet and its infrastructure in accordance with the real needs of the city of Moscow in the transportation of goods.

difficulty in moving

трудности в передвижении
трудности в передвижении

difficulties in movement difficulties in movement

The implementation of this option for the development of freight road transport implies the achievement of an optimal balance of the rights and responsibilities of legislative and executive bodies of state power, business entities engaged in freight road transport activities on its territory, as well as industry self-regulatory organizations.

At the same time, the “infrastructure effect” associated with the implementation of the creation projects in the city will be of paramount importance:

■ large transport and training-industrial complexes based on the integration of economic entities of all forms and scales of business;

■ an integrated system of multimodal transport and logistics centers, a distribution network in Moscow, the provision of competitive services.

■ integrated information and navigation-dispatch systems. A comparison of the scenario options leads to the unequivocal conclusion that the innovative option does not have a reasonable alternative and should act as a target for a long-term transport policy, since it fully provides:

■ strategic interests of the city of Moscow, its economy, social sphere, and also helps to increase the general level of quality of life in the city of Moscow;

■ the transition from a predominantly extensive to an intensive development model based on the use of modern transport, logistics and information and communication technologies, the development of new forms of organization of transport processes and the deepening of interaction with other modes of transport;

■ increasing the innovative activity of transport companies, radically updating transport and technical equipment, taking into account the development of domestic motor transport engineering, strengthening the role of scientific and technical support in the development of the motor transport industry;

■ increasing the level of professional training and qualifications of truck workers, improving their material and social security, creating safe working conditions;

■ an increase in the reliability and safety of the operation of road freight transport, including in the field of ecology, a decrease in the number of accidents and disasters, injuries and deaths in road accidents;

■ development and application of effective mechanisms of state and self-regulation of the functioning and development of freight vehicles;

■ improving the investment climate in the field of trucking.

morning traffic


At a new stage, the strategy should rely on the active role of the city of Moscow and self-regulatory organizations in the field of improving freight road transport as one of the key factors in the socio-economic development of the city of Moscow. This applies, first of all, to improving the quality of transport services, reducing the total socially necessary costs associated with the operation of freight vehicles, increasing the competitiveness of Moscow freight carriers, strengthening the innovative, social and environmental focus on the development of the freight transport complex in the capital.

We will try to “retell” the concept in its main provisions in our own words in order to see the essence behind streamlined expressions.

So, the first and most important thing that the transport authorities of the megalopolis promise and do within the framework of the concept is that they will control cargo flows, fortunately, with ITS this is not so difficult to do. Who, what, at what time, and on a machine of what carrying capacity is transported to and from Moscow - all these data can easily be collected, analyzed and drawn conclusions. And the conclusions can be very definite: from each ban on the entry into Moscow of heavy cargoes of individual cargo owners to night delivery of goods and, finally, delivery at any time. In the latter case, it can be about providing socially significant entities (hospitals, schools, institutes) or about entering the city cars of firms that will clearly specialize in delivering goods from the Moscow Ring Road to their destination in the city, but, naturally, within the framework of an agreement with the shipper and for a fee.

road incidents

дорожные инциденты
дорожные инциденты

traffic incidents traffic incidents


For the country's economy, the Moscow region is considered as a single whole, in many respects this unity is ensured by transport links. This applies, first of all, to the work of such mass modes of public transport as road and rail to service regular passenger flows from the region to Moscow and vice versa. The cooperation of regional and capital buses and minibuses no longer surprises anyone. Without suburban rail links, it is generally impossible to imagine the life of the region. As for commercial vehicles, it is more complicated. Despite all the restrictions and prohibitions, Moscow, with the possible exception of the historical center, is essentially a transit city. As a result, heavy and long trucks on city streets are common. The question of the complete ban on the entry of heavy trucks into Moscow was raised more than once. The current initiative in Moscow, Sergei Sobyanin, has already taken the last initiative in this direction.

As you know, at the end of September 2010, the Moscow Department of Transport announced a draft resolution providing for the introduction of a daily ban on the movement of trucks on the MKAD. The document, in particular, proposed to prohibit vehicles with a carrying capacity of more than one and a half tons from traveling on the ring road from 7:00 to 22:00. In October 2010, this idea was supported by Mayor Sergei Sobyanin. The mayor also ordered that officials think about the possibility of restricting the movement of trucks not only along the MKAD, but also along all other roads of the city.

According to Sergei Sobyanin, freight transport, importing building materials to the capital, provides large wholesale and retail complexes - various fairs, markets, medium and small shops, can cope with its functions only at night. The arguments for this innovation are clear. Arguments against are available for truckers and workers in retail chains.

The first threaten transport collapse. “The daytime MKAD, closed to trucks, will mean round-the-clock congestion on federal highways in the region and on two possible bypass routes along A-107 and A-108,” they say.

The association of trading companies and manufacturers of electrical household appliances (RATEK) estimated that due to the ban on the daily movement of trucks on the MKAD, goods in retail will rise in price by 10–20%. The RATEK says that it is large medium-tonnage vehicles that bring 70% of the cargo to the capital. Thus, the replacement of one truck will require eight "GAZelle". Not only will there be more cars on capital roads, but also logistics costs will grow by 70% …

As you know, the proposed ban from January 15, 2011 on the entry of trucks into the area of the third transport ring has not yet been introduced. But at the same time, the Moscow Department of Transport considers it necessary to adjust the movement of such trucks so that the streets of Moscow cease to function as sedimentation tanks for heavy vehicles.

Trucks from the interior of big cities will not go anywhere. The question is how much less they should be and at the same time they should be used more efficiently, at what time cars can appear in the city, if at all. Given the withdrawal of enterprises outside the city and the development of large logistics centers in the region, the question will arise about the formation of companies specializing in the delivery and transportation of goods to urban points. Most likely, small shops, service enterprises will come to this decision.

You can’t deliver the goods by your own car, and keeping even one or two trucks is unprofitable. And if you have to pay for a truck entry permit in the daytime? “So it’s better to let a specialized company do this,” the owner of the small company will decide. Of course, for large shopping centers, the own fleet will solve the problem of cargo delivery, since transportation costs per unit of goods due to economies of scale will be less than that of a small store. Although they can outsource transport services only to a large company. What is more profitable - a fleet or a rented one (one large car and two small ones) - each business entity decides for himself, based on calculations, which must necessarily take into account the costs of allowing large-tonnage trucks to enter the city line during the daytime. The ban on the entry of large trucks into the city is a matter of time, since the problem of unloading city routes is becoming more and more urgent, and you cannot do without restrictions, just as it cannot be solved without cooperation with the logistics system of the Moscow Region.

By and large, the radical liberation of the capital from heavy trucks forces us to reassess the Moscow region in terms of logistics capabilities for cargo delivery, analyze the region’s warehouse market forecasts for next year, and look at the prospects of the Central Ring Road already taking into account the transfer of the center of gravity of the capital’s cargo flows to the region.

evening time

вечернее время
вечернее время

evening time evening time

In the lens - CDAD

Обоснованием и реализацией программы развития транспортно-логистической системы Московской области занимаются несколько министерств и ведомств. Одним из инициаторов проекта является Министерство транспорта области.

Как и любая стандартная, программа развития логистики Подмосковья включает в себя набор соответствующих мероприятий, распределенных во времени, по исполнителям, по видам финансирования. Одним из системных факторов, влияющих на реализацию программы, является строительство Центральной кольцевой автомобильной дороги (ЦКАД). В октябре 2005 года состоялось совместное заседание коллегии Министерства транспорта РФ и правительства Московской области, на котором было принято окончательное решение относительно строительства кольцевой автодороги.

Вопросы развития логистики и создания ЦКАД суть взаимосвязаны, поскольку очевидно: со строительством новой дороги, а это будет автобан международного уровня, изменится весь транспортный каркас Московского региона. Два эти направления просто вынуждены коррелировать и постоянно учитывать наличие и того, и другого. Поскольку строительство ЦКАД - уже более менее понятная и согласованная константа (известна трассировка: где именно будет проходить дорога, по каким районам, примерные сроки строительства), то, соответственно, программа логистики будет развиваться с учетом этой неизменной величины, т. е. каким образом в области будет проектироваться и создаваться региональная транспортно-логистическая система.

Когда речь идет о ЦКАД, имеется в виду не только сама трасса, но и прилегающие к ней территории. Именно эти земли и являются предметом обсуждения с точки зрения выбора площадок и определения их границ под терминальные логистические комплексы. Концептуально в Подмосковье будет создано несколько очень крупных межрегиональных распределительных центров. Причем это будут комплексы как для обеспечения мультимодальных перевозок, так и для осуществления перевозок отдельными видами транспорта: авто-, авиа-, железнодорожные терминалы. Таким образом, строительство кольцевой автодороги и развитие сервиса будет происходить параллельно, начиная с подготовительных этапов по обустройству прилегающих территорий. В рамках проекта строительства ЦКАД уже определены элементы программы по логистике.

Программа вывода терминальных комплексов из Москвы в принципе абсолютно правильная и необходимая. Но что такое склады в городе? Они ведь существуют в столице не ради самих себя, а создавались под вполне конкретные нужды. Очевидно, что в первую очередь следует вывести из Москвы объекты, которые эти терминальные комплексы обслуживают, а уже потом сами терминалы. Но что это значит на практике? Вывести завод, где работает не то что 2 тыс., даже 200 человек, - это колоссально сложная комплексная задача, затрагивающая и социальный, и политический, и многие другие аспекты.

Поэтому отработка таких глобальных проектов, как ЦКАД и развитие прилегающих территорий, может стать катализатором для начала тех процессов, о которых пока еще только говорится. Вполне может оказаться, что, когда ЦКАД будет построена, федеральное правительство (поскольку это является его прерогативой) вместе с правительством МО примет решение, что дальше, вглубь кольца, все грузопотоки продвигаться уже не смогут. И одно это решение автоматически сделает все складские комплексы внутри ЦКАД никому не нужными.

Ближнее Подмосковье сегодня задыхается от транспортных и экологических проблем, плотность насыщения этого региона не уступает Москве. Тот факт, что через 10 лет МКАД «будет находиться» на ЦКАДе, означает лишь то, что эти территории области будут соответствующего экономического уровня. А через несколько десятков лет этот рубеж, быть может, условно сдвинется на сегодняшнюю границу Московской области.

Таким образом, с вводом в эксплуатацию ЦКАД программа вывода терминальных комплексов из Москвы будет форсироваться. Это и есть умное, не механическое решение данной проблемы: сама жизнь подсказывает, что шаг Б может быть сделан лишь после шага А. Если создание ЦКАД в полном понимании этого слова (т. е. полностью функционирующее «кольцо», обустроенные прилегающие территории, где стоят не только складские комплексы, но и АЗС, гостиницы, имеется и действует вся необходимая инфраструктура) завершится через 10 лет - это будет большой успех.

Напомним, что вокруг Москвы уже есть три кольцевых автодороги - МКАД, так называемые малая (А 107) и большая (А 108) бетонки. Этим дорогам в планах транспортников отведена роль бесплатных альтернатив, поскольку за проезд по ЦКАД будет взиматься плата. Идея строительства очередного кольца шириной от четырех до восьми полос, без пересечений в одном уровне с другими дорогами, со скоростным режимом до 140 км/ч стала одним из пилотных концессионных проектов Минтранса наряду с «новой ленинградкой» и 18-километровой соединительной дорогой между МКАД и Минским шоссе.

За основу для ЦКАД были приняты обе подмосковные бетонки. Согласно предварительной информации, новая трасса должна была проходить преимущественно вдоль малого бетонного кольца, а на западе - по радиальному направлению выходить в зону большой бетонки. Возврат в зону малого кольца предполагался по первому участку (58-15-й км) «новой ленинградки». Идея выноса строительства в этом месте объяснялась высокой стоимостью земли в Одинцовском районе, где сформировалась плотная застройка элитными коттеджными поселками. В настоящее время, однако, «обхода Рублевки» не планируется. ЦКАД пройдет параллельно малому бетонному кольцу, совпадая с ним лишь на одном участке. Речь идет о так называемом «Звенигородском ходе» - от Калужского до Ленинградского шоссе длиной 90 км, который проходит через Звенигород и Рублевку. В 2008 году проект строительства ЦКАД был объявлен правительством приоритетным, включенным в перечень проектов ГЧП, финансируемых с привлечением средств Инвестфонда. Тогда его общая стоимость оценивалась примерно в 520 млрд рублей, из которых 25% должны обеспечить частные инвесторы.

ВФЦП «Развитие транспортной системы России на 2010–15 годы» (подпрограмма «Автомобильные дороги») общий объем финансирования ЦКАД составляет 470 млрд рублей. Объем финансирования ФЦП скорректирован с учетом переоценки затрат на реализацию проектов, хотя окончательная стоимость ЦКАД станет понятна только после утверждения проектной документации.

Помимо проектирования дороги сегодня продолжается разработка концепции развития объектов терминально-складской инфраструктуры в зоне тяготения ЦКАД, которую выполняет санкт-петербургский Научно-исследовательский и проектный институт территориального развития и транспортной инфраструктуры (НИПИ ТРТИ). Проведен анализ и прогноз параметров спроса на терминально-складские услуги в Московском транспортном узле. В конечном документе, который будет готов к 2011 году, будет прописана концепция размещения терминально-складских объектов в пределах ЦКАД и разработан стратегический план по стимулированию развития логистической инфраструктуры в зоне ЦКАД.

According to the Russian Highways GC, which is the customer of the Central Ring Road project, it is estimated that the total investment in the construction of this road in the next five years will be more than 200 billion rubles, including private investment should be at least 80 billion. With this money Until 2015, it is planned to build the first section of the route (53 km), which will connect the Moscow-St. Petersburg high-speed road with the K-Kholmogory highway M-8, and also partially complete preparatory and construction work for another five hours 260 km of the road, which should be introduced in 2016–18 and form a large eastern half-ring from the Moscow – St. Petersburg highway through the federal highways M-8 Kholmogory, M-7 Volga, M-5 "Ural", M-4 "Don" to the federal highway M-1 "Belarus". About 42 billion rubles were provided for the purchase of land for the construction of the road. The process will begin after the development of an engineering project and the receipt of a positive conclusion from Glavgosexpertiza. 42 billion rubles - this is a preliminary figure, in fact it may be more, which is associated with the rise in price of land in the suburbs.

According to the original route of the Central Ring Road, out of 521 km of the route, more than 200 passed through forest lands. Environmentalists even said that under the guise of a road project, the government of the Moscow region wants to build up forest land with commercial facilities and residential real estate. In turn, agricultural holdings, the lands of which are subject to redemption, are seriously concerned about the problem and do not want to part with the property for the sake of the interests of others. If we draw an analogy with the history of the Khimki forest, where, due to a much smaller volume of deforestation, the project already agreed and being implemented with the help of a foreign concessionaire was suspended, then we can assume that a much more heated debate will unfold around the Central Ring Road. And here is the latest news. “Four out of five sections of the Central Ring Road are designed and will pass through the territory of Moscow Region 50 kilometers from Moscow,” said Petr Katsyv, Minister of Transport of the Moscow Region.

According to him, the Moscow region is most in need of chord roads, without which it is impossible to “untie” the Moscow region and Moscow. Logistic centers will appear along the new road, trucks will be unloaded 30–50 km from MKAD.

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Roadside picket. The crew of the traffic police traffic police battalion in the Moscow Region during the raid reveals traffic violations. Excuses drivers for driving on the sidelines - in the video

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Updated Ural-Next: An All-terrain Vehicle With A Cab From GAZelle

GAZ Group presented Ural-Next trucks. Announcement of a test drive. What's new for an all-terrain vehicle?

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Choosing A Suzuki Crossover: SX4 Or Vitara?

Compare Suzuki crossovers worth up to 1.1 million rubles. - SX4 and Vitara. Photos, technical data, reviews, equipment, configuration, prices

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  • Hyundai I30: Slow Down Please

    Hyundai i30 is endowed with many virtues. But acoustic comfort and vibration isolation of the body are not among them. The situation can be corrected

  • Foreign Cars: The Best Purchase Is Up To 400 000 Rubles

    Buyers who are asking the most budget models, alas, there is nothing to please. Rather, the opposite

  • Common Rail Diesel: Breadwinner

    We evaluate the most popular power system for modern diesel engines - Common Rail

  • KDSS: From Empty To Empty - Usefully

    Engineers building universal all-terrain vehicles always one way or another have to find a compromise between high traffic and more or less decent road habits. Toyota has come up with its own solution to the problem - the electronically controlled KDSS suspension kinetic stabilization system

  • Change The Lamp In The Headlight: Tear Out The Eye

    Rating of the lightest and simplest cars for servicing optics - we compare the time of self-replacement of low-beam and turn signal lamps with Hyundai Accent, Ford Focus, Toyota Corolla, Mitsubishi Lancer, Renault Logan, Daewoo Nexia, Chevrolet Lacetti, Mazda 3, Lada Kalina and Priora

  • Check The Windows: Electric Guillotine

    Do you have rear power windows in your car? Well, fine. Do passengers, especially minors, know how to use them? Not even an hour, be trouble