Category: Auto Tips

ZIS-5: Soldiers Are Not Born

2023

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Video: ZIS-5: Soldiers Are Not Born

Video: ZIS-5: Soldiers Are Not Born
Video: Тест-драйв ЗИС-5 2023, March
ZIS-5: Soldiers Are Not Born
ZIS-5: Soldiers Are Not Born
Anonim

ZIS-5

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Advocates of originality and apologists for authenticity will easily find in this VIS many inconsistencies at the time of his birth. However, the time to set it is not so simple. At the base, they say, is a military-style machine that has grown, like thousands of the same three-tonnes, by the fact that those who fought and worked on it could get it and install it. By the way, this ZIS today is not a museum exhibit, but a hard worker. But his work is now incomparably easier than in his youth.

BORN Perestroika

First there was the American Otokar - not the most famous and popular American truck. But simple and inexpensive, which for our country in the late 1920s was much more important. Under the new model, the AMO plant, near Tyufelovaya Grove, was not just reconstructed in 1931, but in fact it was rebuilt (then the second part was the main one in this word). In the beginning was AMO-2 - assembled entirely from imported parts. Then he went AMO-3 - with a different rear axle, battery, and not from magneto ignition and some other changes, the components are already completely domestic. Well, the next model, AMO-5, was already greatly modernized by Soviet designers led by E. I. Vazhinsky.

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Increased engine displacement from 4.9 to 5.6 liters, increased power from 60 hp. to quite solid at that time 73 hp, increased load capacity from 2500 to 3000 kg. At the same time, the design was simplified: among other things, they refused hydraulic brakes on the front wheels - they were considered too complicated for our conditions. The mechanical drive was much simpler not only in manufacture, but also in repair. The first modernized truck at the Stalin plant was assembled in the summer of 1933, on October 1, the ZIS-5 was put on the conveyor, and mass production was launched a year later.

ZIS-5 was simple, and therefore reliable. The oil filter is a felt filter; ten keys were enough for repairs (the drivers joked that if necessary, you can do with one “seventeenth” key). The engine easily digested gasoline with an octane rating of 45-60, and in warm weather, and kerosene.

At the same time, the car was quite modern: it had an electric starter, a diaphragm gas pump (the tank is under the seat), oil should be changed after 1200 km of run, and not after 600 km, as on GAZ-AA. The average mileage before overhaul was 70, 000 km, and for especially tidy drivers it reached 100, 000 km - a lot at that time! ZIS-5 became the first Soviet car exported to Turkey, the Baltic states, Bulgaria, Republican Spain.

ZIS-5

Шестицилиндровый двигатель «захара», заметно модернизировав и подняв мощность с довоенных 73 до 110 л.с., выпускали до рубежа 1990-х - пока не прекратилось производство ЗИЛ-157КД
Шестицилиндровый двигатель «захара», заметно модернизировав и подняв мощность с довоенных 73 до 110 л.с., выпускали до рубежа 1990-х - пока не прекратилось производство ЗИЛ-157КД

The six-cylinder Zakhar engine, having significantly upgraded and raised power from pre-war 73 to 110 hp, was produced until the turn of the 1990s - until the production of ZIL-157KD ceased. The six-cylinder Zakhar engine, having significantly upgraded and raised power from pre-war 73 to 110 hp, was produced until the turn of the 1990s - until the production of ZIL-157KD ceased.

AND FOR SERVICE, AND FOR FRIENDSHIP

In terms of effort on the clutch pedal, this car is only comparable with the T-34 tank. However, I quickly get used to pressing in the middle of the foot. It is best if she is shod in a boot or boots with galoshes. Squeezing between the steering wheel and the seat, even in relatively light clothing, is not so easy, but in order to see the road normally, you have to tilt your head slightly all the time.

The starter slowly and somehow sleepily invigorates the motor. But even a cold engine only needs a couple of revolutions to confidently go crazy.

The gear ratio of the first speed is 6.59! It has to be used only on the roads or at maximum load. By the way, the three-ton was also famous for its cross-country ability - thanks to a low-speed engine, correctly selected transmission and ground clearance under the 260 mm rear axle, it passed where it could not seem to drive on one rear-wheel drive. I stick in the second leg, as tight as possible, and the leg, which seems to be not particularly set aside to the right. More gas! A simple muffler announces the surroundings with a warning roar. We are going!

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Relaxed car does not forgive. He is strict, rude, but straight and honest. I learned to quickly change gears without synchronizers, twice squeezing out a deadly tight clutch and preventing (well, or almost not allowing) a treacherous rattle - well done! We’re going already at 50 km / h, and the maximum speed on the passport is only 60 km / h. True, my three-ton is empty. I’m not going to load it - I’ve pulled mine!

The hood of the truck all the time reminds: "Do not yawn!". The front wheels are constantly looking for a trajectory, and the steering backlash is such that on a straight hand constantly rotate a huge steering wheel at decent angles. A modern car would be enough for a noticeable turn. Of course, this ZIS is old and worn out. But, I think, about the same cars drove along military roads - not new ones, but they remained on the go only thanks to the skill of front-line drivers.

Talking in the cab is possible only in raised tones - the engine roars, the transmission sings loudly. But she, like other domestic cars of those years, is hard at slowing down the engine. It is necessary to release the gas pedal, the car itself slows down. Therefore, mechanical brakes installed only on the rear wheels (cars that were simplified to such an extent during the war) were enough for those conditions. But on this ZIS, the post-war brakes are hydraulic and surprisingly effective. Not even very compatible with the overall image of the car.

If the windows freeze, use ventilation. Unlike the missing stove, it is actually provided for and consists of lowering side windows and a slightly open front section. However, with such a number of slots and openings in the cab, ventilation will still be healthy!

ZIS-5

Иного способа увидеть, что происходит сзади, нет. Зеркал грузовик не имел
Иного способа увидеть, что происходит сзади, нет. Зеркал грузовик не имел

There is no other way to see what is happening behind. The truck did not have mirrors. There is no other way to see what is happening behind. The truck did not have mirrors.

CALL OF 1941

The Germans completed their first air raid on the plant on July 23, 1941. On the evening of October 15, ZIS director Likhachev returned from the Kremlin and announced a complete halt to production (cars and buses had not been done since the summer) and the urgent evacuation of the plant. It began the next day, when the city was in a state of near panic. Highways to the east were blocked by cars, carts and crowds of people with belongings. Many state and party institutions remained, in fact, orphaned, and white spots flew over the papers thrown in a hurry. Someone fled, while others in ten days dismantled and prepared for shipment to the east almost 13, 000 pieces of equipment! So ZIS-5 ceased to be only a "Muscovite". Two new automobile plants appeared in the country - in Ulyanovsk and in the Urals, in Miass. The wartime machine, conventionally called ZIS-5V, was distinguished by the most simplified cabin, sheathed with wooden battens instead of steel, with angular wings made on a bending machine, the absence of front brakes, and sometimes the right headlight. In 1942, production was resumed in Moscow. These trucks (before the war, the Red Army had about 104, 000 ZISs, almost a third of the total number released) honestly carried people and ammunition, a variety of equipment and weapons - from searchlights to huge pontoons, under which the three-ton looked like a tiny pickup truck. So we reached Berlin and Prague and returned back …

THANKS, ZAKHAR

They say witty drivers nicknamed the car “Zahar Ivanovich” even before the war. This name lived for a long time, even after the ZIS-5 was discontinued. By inertia, they also called ZIS-150, and sometimes even ZIL-164. In the Urals, cars were produced almost until the mid-1960s. Well, “zahary” worked, especially in the provinces, right up to the 1970s, undergoing minor, medium and large repairs, and was surrounded by non-native details.

And this truck, with which we seem to have found a common language, is a modest, not at all pathos hard worker with a long, confused fate. But today it is not a museum exhibit. This ZIS - an employee of Mosfilm, plays in the pictures of himself. By the way, not everyone, even an eminent actor, is awarded such an honor. ZIS-5 deserved it.

ZIS-5

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WORKER, PEASANT, SOLDIER

ZIS-5 - significantly upgraded AMO-3; released since 1933. The three-ton truck was equipped with an in-line 6-cylinder engine rated at 73 hp. and a four-speed gearbox. On the basis of ZIS-5, many serial, small-scale modifications and prototypes were created. In particular, the ZIS-10 truck tractor, the three-axle ZIS-6, the elongated chassis for special equipment, the gas-generating ZIS-13, the four-wheel drive ZIS-32, the half-track ZIS-22 and ZIS-42. In Moscow, the car was produced until 1948, the last batch, under the index ZIS-50, with a 90-horsepower engine ZIS-120. ZIS-5 was also produced in Ulyanovsk (UlZIS) and Miass (UralZIS). Since 1956, a UralZIS-355 version was built in the Urals with an 85-horsepower engine, a gas tank under the body, hydraulic brakes and other improvements. The last modification with a more modern cab a la GAZ-51-UralZIS-355M was carried out until the mid-1960s. In total, they built about a million copies of the ZIS-5 of all versions.

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