Katharina Broymakher from the town of Merseburg, near Leipzig, is a stubborn motorist: she recently failed an exam for a driver’s license for the 60th time. But she is not discouraged, despite the fact that over 15 years of unsuccessful certifications she spent about 100, 000 euros on training and tests. Touched by the stubbornness of Ms. Broymacher, the authorities promised to give the lady such a welcome certificate, taking her word from her not to drive without extreme need.
In many developed countries, a driver's license is of particular value. For example, in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States, due to the massive distribution of automobiles, this document de facto replaces the internal passport. To carry it with you, while driving, is necessary in most developed powers.
The exception is the United Kingdom, where rights will be required to be submitted to the police within a week only in case of violation. Such liberalism can only be explained by the fact that it was the British who had the most experience in training future drivers - the first driving school opened in London almost a hundred years ago. And there is something to prepare for.
The rights test is complex: 50 questions in 57 minutes (many imply two or more correct answers), the margin of error is 14%. Tests for the correct reaction (14 clips per minute each) simulate everyday traffic situations: it is necessary to accurately and quickly recognize the emergency and score at least 44 out of 75 possible points; did not have time - dropped out. Then another practice, during which one serious mistake is enough to fail. And before the trip they will ask you to read the license plate, remote at 20.5 m, for eye examination.
By the way, this requirement of the English protocol, as well as many others, applies to the former English colonies, such as Pakistan and India. Here, to obtain a full license, you will have to go through a two-year trial period of accident-free driving with youthful rights. In England, as, by the way, and in Japan, they give out driving licenses only for cars with automatic transmission, officially called “two-pedal” - in this case, the exam will also be carried out in a car with a gun.
In America, you are not a person without a car. It is no wonder that it is allowed to drive here from the age of 14. In states with a low population density, such as South Dakota, Alaska, Arkansas, Idaho, Iowa, Wyoming, Montana, Michigan, at this age, you can obtain study rights by passing only the theory. True, they impose some restrictions - for example, on the transportation of people, towing trailers, driving large vehicles, as well as driving in the dark and rush hours. But many barriers can be removed at the request of an educational institution (school), medical institution or employer if, for example, a novice driver does not have time to return home after class before dark or needs to take a relative to the procedures during peak hours, etc.
With the onset of sixteen years, with one year of driving experience with student rights, you can go to the next level and get a so-called limited license with advanced features. Thus, the 18th anniversary, the age of acquiring a full-fledged document, most applicants meet, already having driving experience.
A person “from the street” must take a course that includes 30 hours of theory (rules, device of a car) and 36 practices, including 18 hours behind the wheel, 12 hours at the navigator’s site and 6 hours of observation in order to get rights after another driver and instructor from the back of the couch. Then - a test for knowledge of the rules, which, by the way, may vary from state to state, as well as a driving test. Total costs - 130-150 dollars. It is not surprising that many Europeans come to the United States to save on a driver’s license.
In Europe, the right to drive a car is available to citizens from the age of 18. However, having passed the theory, you can get training rights from the age of 16 and drive a car in a company with an instructor or driver with five years of experience. The exam system requires serious preparation and is generally similar to English, but with regional characteristics. For example, in Scandinavia, a course on driving on slippery surfaces has been introduced.
In Germany, there is a first aid course that is taught by the Red Cross. And in Switzerland since 2005, all permanent rights have a three-year period of validity, after which the driver will have to undergo two-day training; according to its results, he is either extended his rights or, in the case of gross violations, forced to re-go through certain programs. Since 2013, a uniform standard for a driver’s license has been introduced for all EU member states, as well as Russia. This is a plastic credit card, in which a chip is soldered with anthropometric driver data, a history of violations, etc.
As can be seen from the diagram, the financial qualification for joining the world club of motorists for Russians is quite high. In terms of accessibility of rights, we are not far behind Europe and confidently surpass Japan. But the United States is again unattainable: they do not tighten the screws here, but are engaged in the gradual long-term training of drivers. Once, back in the Union, youthful rights could be obtained at school: youth sat behind the wheel under the supervision of elders, there were children's car clubs, DOSAAF sections. And it bore fruit!
A driving culture cannot be brought up in three months, and a useless exam drill only breeds bribes. So maybe just remember the still not completely forgotten old?
More recently, in Egypt, rights were issued to all citizens over 18 years of age who could drive 6 meters in both directions in a straight line. Recently, the conditions have been “tightened up": now we need to pass an exam in theory of ten questions, as well as drive a "snake" and drop into a garage.