A joint order of the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Ministry of Economic Development was published just on New Year's Eve, although talk that the rules of industrial assembly could change last summer. But the two respected departments could not agree in any way. It took several months to smooth out all the contradictions.
How to "Varangians" were invited to Russia
At the beginning of the XXI century, it finally became clear that without the help of “foreigners” the Russian auto industry would soon finally bend. And they did not want to transfer production to our country, explaining this by the unstable political and economic situation.
Only Ford opened its own production near St. Petersburg - and that’s it! Then the idea ripened in the government - to raise customs duties on foreign cars to the level of prohibitive and at the same time offer foreign car manufacturers “sweet” conditions if they agree to open their plants in Russia.
Do you promise to collect more than 25 thousand cars a year and gradually replace imported parts and assemblies with domestic ones? Fine! Then you will import duty-free components for seven years …
Decree No. 166, signed in 2005, played a role: 18 investment agreements were concluded on the organization of assembly production of foreign cars in the country, eight new plants were built.
All this, of course, is great. But at the same time it became clear: foreigners are ready to assemble cars in Russia with pleasure, especially if, as now, most of the components can be imported into the country duty free. They are in no hurry to place a component base on our open spaces, and no one even thinks about the production of such serious components as the engine, gearbox, suspension parts.
Mess! Where are the promised high technologies? Where is the opportunity to join modern scientific developments? Alas, our workers collect cars invented by others from parts that were not made by us either …
Here are brief results of the first five years of work by decree No. 166
According to the automakers themselves, Avtoframos has reached the highest level of localization to date. The Russian component in the Renault Logan and Sandero models exceeded half (53%). The base of Russian suppliers of Avtoframos includes more than 40 enterprises that carry stamped parts, bumpers, dashboards, seats, windows, lighting, batteries, wheels, tires, etc. And by the end of 2012 Avtoframos plans to increase the share of domestic production components to 74%
The new VW Polo Sedan has been produced since June 2010, and the share of Russian components in it exceeds 40% (primarily due to stamping). Other models at the Kaluga plant will be “ours” only by 10%, and then in a year.
St. Petersburg Hyundai plant already at the time of launching production of the Solaris model reached a localization level of 45%. He became the first foreign car factory in Russia to have its own stamping shop. Moreover, Hyundai brought a pool of its own suppliers from Korea.
Ford was the first to open its factory in Russia, but Focus is still localized at only 30%. At other enterprises operating in the industrial assembly mode (Toyota, GM, Nissan, Sollers, Peugeot-Citroen-Mitshubishi), the level of localization is even lower. They say because they came to Russia later.
In our country there are also several automakers that have no obligations to the Ministry of Economic Development. They have no benefits, but they conduct localization according to their own schedules, based on economic feasibility. So, the localization level of TagAZ and Derweis cars is about 10%, AUTOR is also going to attract local suppliers.
So, according to officials, the time has come for “tightening the screws."
So much for the New Year
On December 27, 2010, the leaders of the Ministry of Economic Development, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation signed a joint order on new principles for industrial assembly. Now, for eight years, foreign companies will be able to import components to Russia on concessional terms, but only if they undertake, three years after the conclusion of the agreement, to reach the annual production volume of 300 thousand machines when creating new plants or 350 thousand when modernizing existing facilities.
Already existing plants should consume at least 35% of Russian components in the first year of the new regime, and then annually increase the localization level by 5% in order to reach the required 60% in five years. At the same time, every third car must be equipped with an engine and (or) a gearbox of Russian production. In addition, the order obliges foreign firms to create research and design centers in Russia.
There is also a slight relief: during the first three years, 5% of cars can be assembled using the large-assembly method.
Those manufacturers who were satisfied with the presented conditions had to hurry: the deadline for signing new agreements expired at the end of February 2011. Why such a rush, it is difficult to understand. Moreover, previously concluded agreements are not canceled - you can work on them until the document expires. But then, of course, you will have to switch to new assembly conditions.
DURATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN COMBINING
Who will reach the finals?
So far, according to experts, only two consortiums are suitable for the new conditions: AvtoVAZ-Renault-Nissan and Sollers-Fiat. But only thanks to state support. AVTOVAZ is practically a state-owned enterprise, and the new Fiat plant will be built at the expense of a soft loan of $ 2 billion, which the banks promised to issue with state participation (at the request of our prime minister).
A pretty picture is obtained: the state sets the conditions to which only the enterprises belonging to it correspond at the moment …
According to the head of the automotive industry department of the Ministry of Industry and Trade Alexei Rakhmanov, the new conditions were discussed with all interested companies, and at least two more alliances will be formed among them that will be used to sign new agreements. It is easy to guess that we are talking about the Volkswagen group and the Hyundai-Kia concern. Perhaps GM can still fit into the Procrustean bed of the new rules. The rest, apparently, will have to modify according to old agreements, and then live on not very favorable conditions.
The logic of the actions of officials is clear: in the current conditions, they decided to bet on large manufacturers. At the same time, no one formally deceived investors: after all, no one promised in writing that the previous conditions would be extended. This is all true, however … Remember the old joke - "spoons were found, but there was an unpleasant residue"? After all, they invited (persuaded!) Concerns on completely different conditions.