ALL ASKED FOR MONEY
To support the automotive industry, governments of leading automobile powers use a range of tools. The most common were loans to manufacturers - for current activities, settlements with suppliers, the development of environmentally friendly technologies, etc. The Americans gave the most money (at interest, of course!) To their enterprises (over $ 35 billion), but this did not save from bankruptcy neither General Motors nor Chrysler. However, they survived this unpleasant procedure - and continue to work. Not spared money for the national automakers and the French government. But the German authorities so far refuse to make direct cash injections into car factories, it is only a loan for Opel, and even then only after the sale of the company. But assistance to the German auto industry is provided by the European Investment Bank (EIB). It approved the allocation of loans in the amount of 1.2 billion euros for the German automobile plants Volkswagen, BMW and Daimler. In addition, German Ford plants and 400 million Euros can receive Euro 200 million. And in the first half of this year, the bank allocated loans of 7 billion euros at reduced rates. But these funds should be used by companies to develop green technologies and support factories in Eastern Europe.
How best to push
In Japan, the authorities, in fact, turned away from financial assistance to automobile companies. In China, there is a serious program to support the automotive industry, but it is aimed primarily at the development of new technologies (for more details see ЗР, 2009, No. 8).
In Russia, the government has chosen the path of direct subsidies to the auto industry. AvtoVAZ allocated an interest-free loan of 25 billion rubles. GAZ was helped by state guarantees for a loan in the amount of 20 billion rubles. Other manufacturers are also promised state guarantees on loans and a refund of part of taxes. At the same time, unlike the United States, where money was allocated for specific restructuring plans (and Chrysler was promised power of $ 6 billion only if it had an alliance with FIAT), almost no obligations were required from Russian automakers.
EXCHANGE ON AN OLD
But perhaps the most effective measure was the promotion of sales with a premium for the disposal of an old machine. They resorted to this measure in Germany, France, Spain, Poland, Slovakia and several other countries. The Germans receive 2.5 thousand euros for an old car that has been scrapped if they buy a new one. In France, similar conditions apply, but the premium here is more modest - 1 thousand euros. In the UK, the premium is 2 thousand pounds (3.3 thousand dollars). But in the Czech Republic, President Vaclav Klaus vetoed a bill providing for a bonus of 30 thousand kroons (1, 150 euros) for buyers of new cars that will be used for old cars. He believes that such a measure, although it will help the automotive industry, but only at the expense of other sectors of the economy.
Thanks to government support in June, demand for cars grew in France (+ 7.1%), Italy (+ 12.4%) and Germany (+ 40%). Sales in Spain and the UK are still falling (-15.9% and -15.7%, respectively), however, compared with the results of May (a 38.7% drop in Spain, a 30% drop in the UK), the situation has improved significantly.
The US Senate has approved a program to reward customers: since August, Americans have received 3.5-4.5 thousand dollars for used cars when buying a new car. True,
only on condition that it will consume less fuel than the previous one (at least 2 liters per hundred). The Canadian government will soon consider options for encouraging those buyers who intend to hand over junk for recycling. It is estimated that the premium will amount to $ 3.5 thousand. And in many provinces, regional programs are already running. So, in Alberta, a local law is in force according to which the owner of a car over the age of 12 years
after it has been scrapped, it receives a premium of $ 300, or a $ 490 check to buy a bicycle.
Since the beginning of the year, the Chinese authorities have tried to make buying a car more attractive for their citizens. They offered preferential car loans, reduced some taxes for owners of cars with an engine to 1.6 liters, and also went on the issue of subsidies to rural residents who purchase cars (ЗР, 2009, No. 8).
Since April, the state program of preferential car loans has been operating in Russia, but it is not yet popular. The reason is that for cars whose purchase (on credit) is subsidized by the government, a very modest maximum price was initially set up to 350 thousand rubles. And only in July it was increased to 600 thousand rubles.
But the idea of paying every Russian citizen 50 thousand rubles for an old car that was scrapped (when buying a new one), which was made by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology, was not even seriously discussed. Firstly, the budget does not include the appropriate funds, and secondly, there are almost no enterprises for the processing of old cars in the country (and they slowly rot in landfills).
The slow but steady growth of the European car market was helped not only by state support, but also by the fact that confidence in the future is gradually returning to consumers. If the current dynamics continue by the end of the year, the leading European countries may return to last year’s sales level. The conclusions for the period from January to June 2009 push this conclusion. Germany became the leader in sales in Europe: over 2 million cars
(+ 26% compared with January - June 2008). On the second line, Italy: 1 million 132 thousand pieces. France closes the top three: 1 million 131 thousand cars. In fourth place with an indicator of 924 thousand cars is the United Kingdom.
Alas, Russia slid from second place to fifth in a year: only 760 thousand cars were sold.
According to the results of the six months, America is still in the red: 4.8 million passenger (cars and light commercial) cars were sold, that is, 35.1% less than in the first six months of last year). But in China, from January to June, 4.53 million new cars were sold - 25.6% more than in the same period a year earlier.