Anonim

Charger for electric vehicles

Зарядное устройство для электромобилей Charger for electric cars Charger for electric cars

What are they like?

Hybrids - so at the end of the twentieth century they began to call cars that use an internal combustion engine and an electric motor - there are, as they say, three grades. The first, ideal, is familiar to drivers of huge mining dump trucks: ICE rotates the generator shaft, it transmits current to the electric motor, which drives the wheels. Simply. Effectively. Expensive. According to this principle, say, a Chevrolet-Volt or a 120-ton BelAZ of the mid-80s being prepared for production was built.

The second scheme involves a conventional car with a wheel drive from a gasoline engine and an additional electric motor, which is included in the operation in certain modes. And when the ICE does not need to be helped, the electric motor becomes a generator, converting excess power (or braking inertia) into current and storing it in batteries. Which, in turn, will help the head engine when the driver needs more power. Such a hybrid is less effective, because the electric motor has to crank the entire internal combustion engine as well. But it is cheaper and easier. It was he who was adopted by Honda engineers, having built the first serial Insight 10 years ago. Finally, the third grade combines the elements of the two previous ones - a hybrid of hybrids, so to speak. Both ICE and electric motor can rotate wheels individually. The transmission in this case is extremely complicated, which means that the car will cost more. But theoretically the third way is more effective. It was based on the creators of the Prius.

Honda insight

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Three cylinders and two seats

The first "Insight" - an unusual three-door coupe with a 3-cylinder gasoline engine and electric motor - was released in 1999. It consumed less than 2.5 L per 100 km, emitting only 80 grams of CO2 per 100 km, and was sold only in the USA and Japan. But not for long - an expensive toy was liked only by fans of extravagant new products, and in 2003 Insight was discontinued, replacing it with hybrid versions of the usual Civic. In total, 275 thousand cars were produced during this time. Only in the spring of 2009, Insight reappeared in showrooms - this time in the form of a full-fledged 5-seater hatchback.

Honda - for savings

Their main competitors fundamentally disagree with this approach. “Our principal task in the design of Insight, ” Honda engineers said, “was to create an affordable hybrid.” And in fact, such a car, in any case in Europe, should not cost more than 520 thousand, otherwise it will have no arguments in the dispute with economical diesel models.

Honda insight

Honda Insight Honda Insight Honda Insight

So, with the “Honda” IMA (Integrated Motor Essist) scheme, a low-power electric motor is added to help the conventional 1.3-liter gasoline engine. It uses a crankshaft as a rotor, and the stator windings are located in place of the flywheel in front of the gearbox. Working in generator mode when braking or coasting, it charges the batteries. When the “Honda” has already reached a straight line, and the speed needs only to be maintained, either the internal combustion engine is operating in the economical mode or the electric motor. However, the power of the latter in most cases is not enough for the independent movement of Insight even when it enters the uniform mode, and therefore the periods of operation only on electric traction are calculated in seconds. But even in this scenario, fuel economy is about 30-40%, depending on the style and driving conditions, which in itself is not bad. Plus a significant reduction in emissions. Yes, a low-power electric motor will not allow the car to move.

Toyota Prius

Toyota Prius Toyota Prius Toyota Prius

Toyota Prius gasoline engine

4-cylinder, in-line, 16-valve, with variable valve timing, operates according to the Atkinson cycle - when the piston moves upward, the excess fuel mixture goes back to the intake manifold with a high compression ratio (13: 1), 1798 cm3, 98 l. with. at 5200 rpm 14.2 kgf.m at 4000 rpm

Another minus - at high speeds, low-power ICEs are quite noisy. But thanks to the ICE of almost standard design (the intake system has been slightly modernized), Insight can start, and in the event of an electric motor failure, continue to move like ordinary gasoline cars, without any help. Toyota chooses ecology Prius is much more complicated. Firstly, the power of the electric motor allows not only to move away, but also to accelerate the car on electric traction up to 50 km / h and even drive a couple of kilometers - after all, it does not even have to turn the gasoline engine. Secondly, the motor is located … inside the gearbox! Finally, thirdly, it can simultaneously rotate wheels and convert mechanical energy into electrical energy when discharging gas or when braking and store it in batteries. Both the generator and the electric motor were mounted in the variator case, but they were not placed coaxially.

Toyota Prius

Toyota Prius Toyota Prius Toyota Prius

The generator was connected to the central gear, the ICE crankshaft to the planet carrier, and the electric motor to the outer ring gear. It's hard to even understand, imagine what it costs in production! Paired with a 1.8-liter, 98-horsepower engine and an electric motor produce 136 liters. with. True, it’s not the rated power of the electric unit that counts, but the one that it gives out when working on battery power. But in general, the tandem provides acceleration to hundreds in 10.4 s and a top speed of 180 km / h is very good. However, due to the special design (we talked about it in No. 13), a gasoline engine can only work at high speeds - it is no coincidence that the Prius starts on electric traction. So if the battery runs out, the trip will have to be postponed. However, there is a lifesaver. They hid another small battery in the trunk. In order to just start the engine (but not budge!) And, at least, not to scatter the winter from the cold, its capacity is enough, in addition, the Prius has an electric pump for the cooling system.

But a serviceable car promises to give pleasure - the dynamics and efficiency of Toyota are better than that of Insight. And you can start in absolute silence. Only it costs all this pleasure decently more expensive. For example, in France, the price of a Toyota starts at e25, 000, while a Honda is e5000 cheaper. True, the government of the country pays compensation to each buyer of a hybrid car in e2000. Sailors have questions. We are unlikely to receive such gifts. Anyway, in the near future. It is also necessary to adopt a law on green payments. So if European prices are offered to us for environmentally friendly Japanese models in Russia, there are no chances for hybrids. To give 890–1100 thousand for a “golf” class car with unclear operating prospects in our country (“We sailed, we know, ” the owners of warm garages will say: you can’t freeze any battery, but what will it cost to replace such an expensive one?), Not the best dynamics and not the most roomy interior - this is pure altruism.

Toyota Prius

Toyota Prius Toyota Prius Toyota Prius

Million with a hook

As a concept, the Prius debuted in 1994, and three years later went into production. But because of its unpretentious appearance and weak motor, it was not particularly popular. But the second-generation car not only won the title of “Car of 2003” in Europe, but, unlike its predecessor, already brought Toyota a profit. The power of its engine increased from 100 to 113 liters. pp., the amount of carbon dioxide in the exhaust was reduced from 120 to 104 grams per 100 km. Even before the Prius III went on sale this spring, the millionth hybrid car of this model managed to get off the assembly line.

Toyota Prius

Toyota Prius Toyota Prius Toyota Prius

Completely Forgotten Old

Those who consider hybrid cars to be the latest design achievement will have to upset. Back in the late 80s of the nineteenth century, Eustace Entz, chief engineer of the Electric Storey Battery Company from Philadelphia, received several patents for the improvement of dynamos and generators. His company was engaged in the production of rechargeable batteries, and Entz was harassed by their heavy weight and small capacity. The American tried to combine in one car the advantages of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. On May 4, 1897, blueprints for the “gas-electric vehicle, ” as Entz called it, were ready, and a year later he built the first prototype. Alas, during a test drive, Eustace caught one of the electrical wires, from a short circuit the car broke out and burned to the ground. Since then, Entz has focused on work on improving generators and in the end invented … an electric transmission for a car! So more recently, hybrids celebrated their 111th birthday.

We decided:

So which of the two newcomers is better? While there are no prices and complete sets, it is impossible to unequivocally answer this question. One thing is clear - the Prius is more efficient, but more complicated and more expensive, and Insight consumes a little more fuel, emits a little more carbon dioxide, but it's easier and cheaper.

Honda insight

Honda Insight Honda Insight Honda Insight