From the point of view of eternity
- Yuri Petrovich, you have two events this spring - the anniversary and two years of work as a minister. Congratulations! By the way, in terms of harmfulness, how is the minister’s year of work estimated? For two, for three?
- Everyone has his own score. I proceed from the fact that a person must improve all his life. Of course, in these two years I wanted to do more. Not all succeeded
- The question of gas prices does not apply directly to you. But still - how to make it cost less in one of the main oil producing countries in the world?
- The closed market for petroleum products within the country has long ceased to exist; it is part of the global energy market. There are, of course, economic instruments that allow for some time to restrain fuel prices in the domestic market. With the help of taxes and duties, for example. But you need to understand: these are artificial, temporary and not very effective measures. Ultimately, any manufacturer will find a way to extract more revenue. We will artificially keep low prices in the country - manufacturers will start exporting more and there will be a shortage; we crush oil workers with export duties - we lose the world market. So in the foreseeable future it is necessary to prepare for the fact that our prices for all types of products will approximately correspond to world prices. And we won’t do anything here. We will not revive the Soviet Union, close borders, make all enterprises state-owned in order to set any prices, at least 3 kopecks per liter of gasoline. Then you need to be prepared for the fact that the queues for the "Lada" will be revived, and there simply will not be other cars.
I would look at it from a different point of view. The problem is not how much a liter of gasoline costs, but how much in your pocket you drive up to the gas station. If the economy functions and develops normally, and the income of Russians grows, even the global average price of gasoline will not scare anyone. We need to think more not about how to stop the price increase (I repeat, this occupation is meaningless in the long run), but how to increase the income of the population. At the same time, I believe that the amounts earned from the export of oil and gas should not be accumulated in the stabilization fund. It is better to draw them to increase the country's competitiveness. I think it’s much more useful for Russia not to put money in a bag, but to build roads, new power lines - to create better conditions in the country for life and economic development. Then, probably, the question of how much gasoline would cost would have worried much less.
- And for how many years, according to your estimates, will there be enough oil in the country? How much longer do we need to drive gasoline engines?
- Oil belongs to non-renewable resources, and the end of stocks will come sometime. But we have oil provinces that we did not even begin to develop (Eastern Siberia, the shelf of the oceans, etc.). So, according to various estimates, we will hold out for 50–70 years. True, the price of oil will rise, because the most affordable, large and profitable fields will be depleted first. There is still a lot of oil in the world, but each ton will cost more and more every year. I don’t know how much more it will take to drive gasoline engines, but in any case, today everyone is literally on the verge of new discoveries … But what will it be - hydrogen engines or something else, I can’t say - they will find a solution to the problem in the world.
- It is often written that the efficiency of oil production in Russia is many times lower than in developed countries, that we treat our reserves as invaders, removed foams and fled. Is it possible to change something?
- There is no such huge difference in production efficiency, although it is quite obvious that it can be increased. There are a number of ways. Many believe that by tightening state control, the problem will be solved. Of course, we tighten control, but you can’t put a person with a baton next to each well. And it’s not necessary, I guess. Moreover, there is a certain evolution in subsoil use. There are companies that do not need to be persuaded to work with the bowels carefully, and this does not depend on the form of ownership, but only on the people working there. If the owners believe in stability in Russia, then they will develop the field given to them for 40 years, they will extract everything to the last drop and receive stable incomes. After all, it is profitable - there is infrastructure, roads, personnel. And if you are afraid that tomorrow they will be taken away their license with the business, then naturally they try to deflate and sell it as soon as possible, and hide the money received as far as possible. We switched to market mechanisms not so long ago, and so far not everyone has believed to the end that this is serious and for a long time.
- The question is not entirely from your field of activity. What will we do with monstrous environmental pollution? In Moscow, there’s absolutely nothing to breathe …
- Indeed, this does not directly relate to the functions of the Ministry of Natural Resources. But I will not send you to my colleagues in the cabinet, but I will express my point of view. We must create conditions so that people can find highly paid jobs not only in Moscow, but throughout Russia. Otherwise, the population of the capital will continue to grow by leaps and bounds, and the load on the ecology of the city will increase. No highways and multi-level interchanges will save here (although they certainly need to be built). The only way, as I said, is to prevent people from fleeing to Moscow, because only here you can earn a decent living.
- But in your hometown of Perm, traffic jams on the streets are also not uncommon now …
- And Perm and the region from the point of view of the economy are developing at a very good pace, the situation there is favorable in this sense. And there are more and more cars. We have already built many roads, interchanges, bridges, for the first time in Russia, for example, we laid a tunnel under the existing railway line - the Trans-Siberian Railway. But alas! - I still realized there: no urban development decisions in our country can keep up with the pace of motorization. We can somehow improve the situation, but we will always be slightly behind.
Who invests on the road
- When in Russia it will be possible to solve the problem of roads? What do I need to do?
- I have already partially tried to answer this question. If the economy provides additional funds, including from mining, it is necessary to direct them to the creation of infrastructure and, first of all, to the construction of roads. The state should mainly invest money; no one else can replace it here.
There is one more aspect. Today, the road services market is quite monopolized. In each region, a small number of companies, as a rule, mutated from government agencies that are used to making roads using standard (for themselves) technology. Smaller crushed stone, a thinner tar, where the skating rink did not pass - we slap with shovels. The result is known to everyone: in a year, this road should be practically rebuilt.
When I was still the mayor of Perm, I began to put into practice the construction of roads with a guaranteed lifespan. This means that the builders undertake not only to build the road on time and turn it in, but also to repair it at their own expense for a long time. Naturally, in this case, they themselves are interested in the quality of their work. It is necessary to break into the monopoly of the market, develop competition in this sector, support those companies that use new technologies, and teach the rest to learn how to work.
[caption id = "attachment_189475" align = "aligncenter" caption = "Yuri Petrovich TRUTNEV
Born March 1, 1956 in Perm. In 1978 he graduated from the Mining Department of the Perm Polytechnic Institute, mining engineer.
He worked in Perm NIPIneft as a junior researcher, then (1981–1986) in the city committee of the Komsomol, after h "]
- Not so long ago we had a meeting with the Minister of Transport I. Levitin. He said that the biggest problem in the construction of roads is land allocation, which is why the start of construction is delayed by an average of two years. Is it possible to simplify this procedure?
- Have already done! During the construction of roads and infrastructure, we gave the right to solve the issues of land allocation related to forests to the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Now it takes 1.5–2 months instead of one and a half to two years.
FROM ROADS TO CARS
- In your recent speech at a government meeting, you criticized the education system in driving schools, where they use methods 20 years ago. And what do you think should be taught in driving schools?
- I consider, first of all, driving. For example, in Finland they are sure to learn how to drive a car in a slip. Do they have worse tracks than ours? We have the same climate, so I think something similar should be provided for in our programs. It is necessary to teach people to brake correctly, to act adequately in a situation if the car skidded. A pedestrian or other traffic participant does not care how a novice reverses into a garage. This is his car! Twice it will be “rubbed” by the wing, for the third time it will be mastered. But how he brakes before a pedestrian crossing - I do not care. And how will he cope with the car when at night, in the rain, it will drift around the corner. And this happens regularly with us! This winter, when the first snow fell, on a flat stretch of road half a kilometer long I counted six accidents! It turns out that these conditions are already extreme for our drivers? There is something to think about …
- And when and where did you learn to drive a car yourself?
- The first driving lessons received at the age of twelve; the car was called GAZ-69, and he did not want to obey me. I, a boy, his elders trusted him, and I slowly mastered driving skills. And already he was preparing to pass exams at the traffic police at his father's Moskvich-412.
- Your passion for motorsport began a long time ago?
- Everything happened by chance. I started doing business and already in the late 80s earned decent money - I could afford a good modern car. At that time I changed cars quite often. And now, after the Mercedes-CLK with the Brabus engine, he got behind the wheel of the Subaru Impreza and was simply conquered by it! At the same time, I realized: I can’t drive such a machine at all, despite all my previous experience. Then he came to the competition to see how the pilots deal with the same cars. I found a trainer and asked for some lessons. Liked! Later he began to speak - he reached the master of sports, was a bronze medalist of the Russian rally championship, second in the Cup … Unfortunately, I had to leave this lesson. I would not recommend anyone to do a rally from time to time - this requires the highest concentration and constant training. But in any case, the rally is the most interesting, from my point of view, discipline of motorsport, where you need not only car driving skills, but also intelligence, the ability to move along a virtual track, teamwork in a team … A very interesting and beautiful sport! And when there is every opportunity to drive and drive somewhere outside the city - I do it with pleasure. But in the city I’m never scorcher, although I often drive myself.