Category: Automakers

Ecology On Solaris

2023

Table of contents:

Video: Ecology On Solaris

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Solaris 11 Boot Environment 2023, January
Ecology On Solaris
Ecology On Solaris
Anonim

There are two ways: the first is to raise this very quality, the second is to send all those dissatisfied somewhere to Solaris. There, the duties of improving the quality will be automatically transferred to the “thinking ocean”, which will fulfill the dreams of the afflicted … But, unfortunately, Solaris is only fiction, and space is incomprehensible and inhospitable: he does not care about worldly problems.

COUNTRY IS BIG …

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But back to earth! Not all foreign car manufacturers are willing to bring diesel engines to Russia. Why? It's all about our diesel fuel, out of habit called diesel fuel. Representatives do not want to "fall" under the guarantee …

According to rumors, when six years ago a sample of Russian diesel fuel was brought to a certain French laboratory engaged in the production of automotive chemicals for diesel engines, they did not believe for a long time that this yellowish dubious liquid is fuel that you can ride on.

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What are the problems? For example, in the discrepancy between our GOSTs and Western, and indeed any ideas about the value of the cetane number (CC) - the most important parameter of diesel fuel. A low CCP index leads to a decrease in starting properties, an increase in the rigidity of operation and toxicity of the exhaust gases of the engine, and under certain conditions, to a decrease in the efficiency of combustion, and therefore, an increase in fuel consumption. We still have GOST 305–82 of the model already 1982, according to which the cetane number for ALL types of diesel fuel - summer, winter, and even Arctic - can be 45 units, while to the West with a solarium, which has lower central heating 51, do not pop! And for a diesel engine, the difference between 45 or 51 is an abyss. Well, this is a separate conversation …

The main problems of our diesel fuel are water and sulfur. Sulfur is always present in diesel fuel - our oil is too sulphurous. But whether it is good or bad is another question.

During the combustion of sulfur fuels, sulfur compounds appear in the exhaust gases, which, when combined with water, produce acids known even from the school chemistry course. Remember how the droplets of acid sizzled and foamed on copper plates?

For the engine, sulfur is both beneficial and harmful. On the one hand, it dramatically reduces wear, as its joints play the role of a kind of solid lubricant that saves parts during starts or critical loads. A decrease in its concentration in diesel fuel without appropriate compensation sharply increases the wear rate of cylinders and pistons, and we can’t even talk about plunger pairs of fuel pumps. By the way, it is sulfur and still water in the fuel that are the main reasons for the failure of “repair under warranty” at numerous branded service stations. On the other hand, an excess of sulfur in the fuel significantly accelerates the thermochemical corrosion of the working surfaces of the cylinders and the aging rate of the engine oil. For the “correct answer” to the question about the composition of the fuel, one should turn to European standards: they specify the cetane number, sulfur content, as well as low temperature properties, etc. But the main thing is sulfur and CC.

According to Euro IV, the sulfur concentration should not exceed 0.005%, but so far we have allowed from 0.2 even up to 0.5%. How, then, do their diesel "trucks" take care of a million on fuel with such a low sulfur content? And why ours and sulfur do not reach three hundred thousand? Partly because the antiwear effect of sulfur in the imported solarium is replaced by special antiwear additives. And they are expensive …

Some Russian oil refineries export high-quality diesel fuel to Europe, but introducing it overnight across the country is economically disadvantageous. All domestic trucks work perfectly on what is, and the driver of an old KamAZ does not even want to pay 20% more for a new fuel. Moreover, the director of the car depot does not want to have dozens of such cars. We assume that this is a matter of time: common sense and progress in our country someday still intersect … like parallel lines that Lobachevsky crossed in "his geometry."

GOOD NEWS

The deteriorating ecology, as a result of the extremely high traffic load of the capital, prompted local authorities with a special decree to limit the sulfur content from January 1 of this year and normalize the lubricity of diesel fuel sold in Moscow. The installed bar approximately corresponds to the Euro III standards: sulfur - not more than 350 mg / kg, lubricity according to the adjusted diameter of the wear spot - not more than 460 microns.

By the way, what is a wear spot and what does it eat with? This is a method for evaluating the antiwear properties of diesel fuel in a facility where a solid ball moves back and forth along a special plate under a given load. All this happens in the tested diesel fuel. And the wear spot is the size of the spot that will be rubbed over a fixed time on the ball. The corrected spot diameter is the result of recalculating the resulting diameter according to a special table or scale. Not very similar to a real engine assembly, but there's nothing to be done - no other has been invented.

AND IN FACT?

But in fact - we’ll find out: what is it like, fuel for diesel engines. We take brand new cans, compile a procurement commission, collectively purchase samples of diesel fuel at various gas stations in Moscow and the Moscow region and take them for inspection to the VNIINP. Samples were taken selectively at several popular gas stations: four metropolitan and five suburban - in the fall and four metropolitan and three suburban - in the winter. We were interested in several parameters - sulfur content (as an environmental component) and lubricity of fuel (as a necessary component of the normal operation of modern high-pressure fuel pumps).

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For winter fuel, parameters such as the maximum filterability temperature, which characterizes the temperature at which the fuel retains pumpability through the fuel filter, were additionally checked. Of course, at the same time, the cetane number was estimated - it is it that affects the starting properties within the pumpability range (the lower it is, the more difficult it is to start a diesel engine in the cold). The data are given in table. 1 and 2.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

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Of course, we checked only a few gas stations and do not claim to be "comprehensive analytics." However, some conclusions can be drawn. In autumn, the highest sulfur content was detected in regional samples, and where sulfur was more or less normal, the lubricity was very lame (the lower the indicator in the table, the better). Checking the winter DT showed that the environmental component still returned to normal, but lubricating additives in most samples, alas, are missing …

This, by the way, is not surprising! The contradiction between the antiwear and depressant properties of diesel fuels, that is, their ability to operate at low temperatures, is well known.

Winter diesel fuel depressant additives has more. To improve fuel pumpability at low temperatures, it is necessary to remove or destruct paraffins from it: lubricating and anti-wear properties will suffer. As for the results, on the whole they are preferable to Lukoil Euro-4. All other tests, whatever one may say, turned out to be worse. However - the numbers are in front of you: see …

FROM MOSCOW TO THE MOST TO THE EDGE …

So what happens: Muscovites - cleaner fuel, but for the rest of the country - everything is the same? Not! Starting July 1 of this year, new requirements are introduced everywhere for diesel fuel - GOST R 52368-2005 “Diesel fuel EURO”.

The requirements for diesel fuel are the same as for the Moscow product now, that is: mass fraction of sulfur - 350 mg / kg, lubricity - not more than 460 microns, and cetane number - not lower than 51. At the same time, the "old" GOST will continue to exist and fuel will continue to be produced on it. What for? For obsolete equipment. Old tractors, buses and other "monsters" do not need new fuel - they perfectly digest old.

The introduction of new requirements roughly equivalent to Euro III is certainly a positive development, but … but why not Euro IV? After all, there would be no problems! The fact is that today many oil refineries, for technical reasons, are simply not able to produce something more modern. Well, they can’t "give out" diesel fuel with a mass fraction of sulfur of 50 mg / kg … And so that everyone remains in the "game" - the bar was set at a really achievable height.

There is a feeling of twofoldness: the requirements are new, but not quite modern, while fuel manufactured according to old standards will remain on sale. That is, at the gas station selling DT, there will be two “pistols”: DT and DT “Euro”. And although, it would seem, now everyone can choose what is more acceptable for his car, let's not forget that our country is large. And if in its remote corner it is not profitable for someone to sell a more modern DT due to its low demand or, even worse, the temptation to make another “cocktail” of different fluids, it turns out that the majority of Russians still have a diesel engine power unit "for others."

But Europe finally decided on a diesel engine, choosing it not for the transport of heavy loads, but simply for itself, for life.

What can I say - diesel cars have already begun to come into motorsport! It is hoped that for the next step to the "Euro" we do not have to wait 24 years and again catch up with the departing plane to Solaris …

FREQUENTLY REFILLING THE MODERN DIESEL CAR IN RUSSIA IS LIKE A GAME IN RUSSIAN ROULETTE …

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