The most representative and democratic - in Hanover
e. There, in addition to the Big Seven - Mercedes, MAN, IVECO, Renault, Volvo, Scania, DAF and Neoplan, Eurobus, Bova, VanHul buses and other trifles ".
In Amsterdam, compared to Hanover 2004, there were probably a third less trucks, but the expositions of the main participants are equally magnificent. The brightest and most extensive is at the Mercedes. Affects the abundance and breadth of the gamut - from small “vitos” to powerful four-axis “actresses”.
“Volkswagen”, in addition to the nimble “caddy”, “transporters” (already the fifth generation!) And LT, put up a cargo version … “Tuarega”. Probably for fun. It differs from the ordinary inhabitant of deserts only with a plywood platform covered with carpet instead of the back seat. They even kept leather, with walnut inserts, upholstery of the rear doors. Well, the price, comparable with the acquisition of a dozen of our "gazelles", a real trucker, apparently, will not scare away.
Where, if not at such an exhibition, to announce the anniversary of the company or model? IVECO this year turned only 30 years old … In honor of the event on the street, at the entrance, stood the legendary Magirus. There are two oldtimer trucks in the pavilion: the FIAT, born in 1916, and again the Magirus, but four years younger.
Ford Transit celebrated its fortieth anniversary - how time has changed it. The nine-seater white-scarlet veteran minibus with lining and wings resembles our “21st” Volga and “The Seagull” at the same time - there were other times, a different fashion.
Each of the Big Seven has its own engine production. Unless Volvo, having bought Renault, began to mount its D12 motors on “premiums” and “magnums”. The difference is in the little things and the valve cover with the inscription “Renault”, but after a year and a half ago, Swedish experts kept the prospect of such unification a secret.
By and large, all modern European diesel engines are similar to each other. The working volume of one cylinder in small engines is a liter or a little more, large ones are two liters. A different diesel engine differs from the competitor by only a couple of millimeters in diameter or piston stroke and seems to be its mirror image: on the left is the inlet, on the right is the outlet and vice versa. The general recipe for high power is four valves per cylinder, a turbocompressor with electronic regulation of the guide apparatus and intercooler for intercooled air - intercooler.
However, each design has its own zest. The “Swedes” have a turbocompound - an additional turbine behind the compressor, twisting the crankshaft through the fluid coupling and gearbox. MAN in the D20 motor separated the cooling and lubrication of the head and block. The gasket only seals the gas joint, and this significantly increases the reliability of the engine. Ivekivsky "Cursor" is economical and relatively light in weight. “Mercedes” “grease” drives away the use of plastic - even the pan and head covers from it. The new 13-liter DAF-Pekkar MX combines a water-oil heat exchanger, its thermostat and an oil filter in a single unit.
The toxicity standards are becoming more severe. You can keep within them by increasing the injection pressure to 1800–2500 atm. However, the exact dosage of the cyclic feed without electronics can no longer be mastered. High-speed solenoid valves are equipped with pump nozzles, individual “column” injection pumps or use the more promising “common rail”. To take the Euro IV bar, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), diesel particulate filters are being introduced, and for Euro V an SCR urea solution catalyst is already needed. But compliance with environmental standards leads to loss of power, and to maintain it, increase the working volume. No wonder that over the past few years, all engines have grown on average per liter.
Finding a suitable place for the urea tank forced the battery to move into the rear overhang of the tractor, and the receivers into the frame. Fifty liters is enough for 4, 500 km: just one go from Germany to Russia and vice versa.
Among the delivery trucks, more and more hybrids. Diesel puffs outside the city, and electric traction helps out in the area of strict environmental standards. For this, a direct current motor with a capacity of about half the diesel engine is installed in front of the gearbox. Mileage without recharging traction batteries is also small - 50–70 kilometers. But this is enough to pop, for example, into the resort area, where regular trucks have been ordered to enter. With such a power plant produce "Mercedes-sprinters", "IVECO-Daily", "Mitsubishi-Kanter."
The gearboxes are still equipped with dividers and demultipliers, gears are usually from 10 to 16. Unless the crankcases are now tunnel, without a cover that weakens the rigidity of the unit. In the drive, as a rule, cables or hydraulics, and the lever, so as not to interfere with the parking lot, is made folding or retractable. And increasingly, KPs are equipped with electronic-pneumatic automated control.