Category: Automakers

High Tech. FROM COMPLEX TO PERFECT

2023
Video: High Tech. FROM COMPLEX TO PERFECT
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High Tech. FROM COMPLEX TO PERFECT
High Tech. FROM COMPLEX TO PERFECT
Anonim

A noble television mechanic, who occupied almost half of the hotel room, fiddled with the remote control for a long time, but spread his hands. Well, I’ll click it by hand. Although irritation remained: nevertheless, the 21st century is in the yard. Without a remote control, and a digital camera jack, the TV looks somehow miserable. Spoiled?

But what can be said about buttons and buttons, displays and displays - high-tech products that stuffed cars at the stands of the Frankfurt Motor Show to the eyeballs? Today, a whole academy of sciences is working on each model: physicists, chemists, even biologists, and, of course, programmers. By the way, high technology is now not only electronics. Other mechanical devices in terms of intricacy and subtlety of execution compete with it - but still without electronics, of course, nowhere …

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The seat belt pretensioner with an electric motor, unlike the device with a squib, does not work at the time of the accident, but even before it - on the command of a computer that analyzes the information generated by the "brains" of ABS, ESP and other systems. The tension of the belt depends on the degree of danger. Reusable TRW retractors are installed, in particular, on the new Mercedes-Benz S.

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The possibilities of entertainment equipment were demonstrated by the Brabus company. A very thin 32-inch multimedia screen in the passenger compartment can be quickly lowered so that through the lowering limousine glass you can see landscapes rushing in front of the hood of the Mercedes-Benz Viano with a 4.4-liter engine.

Even the fact that the seat, like a rational creature, is endowed with memory, is not surprising. And it’s hard to imagine the engine, gearbox, four-wheel drive transmissions, brakes, steering without computers. The car independently dries the pads, pushes them to the discs and increases the pedal effort before the inexperienced driver realizes: it smells like an accident. Electronics was taught to change the stiffness of the suspension and ground clearance, to “strangle” the engine and slow down when cornering so that the car does not leave a safe path. But programmers persistently move on, invading the holy of holies. The computer already confidently commands the suspensions. For example, electric motors, by his order, change the convergence of the rear wheels, depending on the speed and curvature of the turn.

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The Audi Q7 all-terrain vehicle was introduced immediately also in a hybrid version. This version reaches 100 km / h in 6.8 s and accelerates from 80 to 120 km / h in 7 s. And the average fuel consumption, they promise, is only 12 l / 100 km.

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The “Audi Q7” is paired with a 350-horsepower “eight” running a 32-kilowatt electric motor installed between the engine and the automatic transmission. Gasoline and electric units can act together and separately.

It seems that the phrase “I pulled the car out of a skid”, dear to the heart of experienced, skilled drivers, will be out of use. We do not say with pride: “I control the TV!” (This damn remote was given to me!). However, if it comes to complete “dehumanization,” it will not be soon. But the fact that electronics is working more clearly and faster is a fact. So electric drives (or, as designers say, control by wire) will conquer the car more and more actively. No, of course, you can’t do without “iron”: the rack and pinion steering gear, the levers and suspension springs will remain like brake discs and pads. But there will be less and less mechanical connections, and the car will become even smarter and more helpful.

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The power unit of the Lamborghini Gallardo is the pride of Italian and German (from Audi) designers. The handsome 500-horsepower engine is interlocked with a six-speed gearbox. From it, one shaft goes to the front wheels, the second to the rear differential.

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Introducing a new production model right away with power units that are not so familiar has become a good form. A 2-liter engine with 180 hp / 132 kW on the SAAB-9-5 Bio Power consumes a mixture of gasoline and ethyl alcohol.

Stop! And reliability: who did not encounter a “freezing” computer! Automotive "brains", manufacturers say, are much more flexible. To avoid errors, control units of different devices constantly exchange information on high-speed CAN-buses. In addition, in the most critical devices affecting safety, the principle of duplication borrowed from aviation is used. For example, they provide an additional compact power source and an electric motor or increase the number of “sensory organs”.

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Jaguar-KhK is an example of the widest use of aluminum. A coupe with a base of 2752 mm and a V8 engine with a power of 298 hp / 219 kW “pulls” only 1595 kg. The maximum speed of the "cat" is electronically limited - 250 km / h.

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In a press release, the Maybach-Exceller concept is called a high-end creation. The monster, built together with the tire company Fulda, with a light spatial frame and a 700-horsepower engine, showed 351.45 km / h at the Nardo racetrack in Italy. That's really high-end! Or will it be even cooler?

A typical example of the path that engineers are now taking is TRW’s new product: active cruise control of the second generation ACC 2. The device can be turned on at a speed of 30–40 km / h. If you gape, dangerously approaching a car in front, the car itself will reduce engine speed, and then it will start to slow down. At the same time, an alarm will sound in the cabin. The “firing" angle of the radar installed in the middle of the front panel is 5 degrees, the distance from which the device recognizes the object is 180 m. Of course, it does not remove responsibility from the ACC driver and cannot even brake urgently (deceleration will not exceed 0.3 g) To allow the car to put more pressure on the brake, data from one radar is not enough, engineers say. And they are preparing a version with a second “eye” - a video camera, which, like the radar, will deliver information to the control unit. Only by “hearing” the two and comparing their testimonies can he make a more serious decision than “slowly slow down the car”. While ACC is being put on expensive cars - Volkswagen Phaeton, Bentley and others. But soon a similar device, though operating from 120, not 180 m, will be offered as an option to Volkswagen Passat customers. And in the work is already ACC for a golf class car. The trend is obvious: electronic "toys" are gradually and fairly quickly moving from executive cars to more massive ones.

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Once secret, military devices became available in serial, though not at all cheap models. The Night Vision system helps the BMW 7 Series driver to see in the dark at a distance of up to 300 m from the car.

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A new class of cars - SUC (Sport Utility Cabrio) was opened by the German company "Karmann". The conceptual convertible SUV was equipped with a 320-horsepower 4.4-liter engine. Four-wheel drive transmission with a 6-speed gearbox with electronic control created by ZF.

Despite the fact that the rods, levers, cables become less, cars get heavier. Cars of the popular C- or golf class are “pulling” today by 1, 100-1, 200 kg - a couple of centners more than their ancestors 15 years ago. The mass of solid sedans is about a couple of tons, and large off-road vehicles are even 500 kilograms heavier. Not surprising: the cars are full of additional equipment, passive safety devices. But extra pounds - loss of dynamics, increased fuel consumption.

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The hybrid drive is also suitable for a sports roadster, according to Daikhatsu. The HVS (Hybrid Vehicle Sport) concept, in addition to the 1.5-liter gasoline engine rated at 105 hp / 77 kW, has three (!) Electric ones. Two - with a total power of 36 kW, act on the front wheels, the third - 22-kilowatt through the multi-plate clutch, electronically controlled, on the rear.

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This miracle named "Movies", participating in the design competition of the company Peugeot, was drawn by a young Portuguese Andre Costa. They say that around 2020 city cars will become like that. And what - there will be almost no problems with parking at a ball 2.33 m long. And visibility …

Designers are saving literally on every detail and are increasingly using lightweight materials. By analogy with the term “post-industrial era”, it can be said that “post-steel” has come in the automotive industry. Aluminum, parts of which are about a third lighter than steel, plastic, carbon composite materials (they can save up to 50% of the mass in comparison with “iron”) are registered in bodies, chassis elements, and engines. At the same time, engineers and scientists have learned to combine the “unconnected”. As you know, the contact of steel and aluminum creates very favorable conditions for corrosion. "Gaskets" to prevent it - the pride of chemists working with automobile manufacturers - have been used for several years. And the Mazda engineers went further. In the new MX-5 roadster, aluminum and steel are welded by friction using sophisticated technology - the company's know-how. There will be no problems with corrosion and durability, says Mazda.

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It seems to be a convertible with a hardtop, like the Volvo-C70, we are already used to. And we don’t think about how accurately all this mechanics should work, how high the requirements for seals are.

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The conceptual Smart Crosstown is equipped with 61-horsepower gasoline (0.7 L) and 23-kilowatt electric motors and a six-speed gearbox with sequential shift. The maximum speed of the hybrid baby is 135 km / h.

Most drivers, while pressing the “Start” button or while turning the ignition key “the old fashioned way”, do not think about what tricks the designers go to remove 80–100 hp from 1 liter of working volume, without upsetting us with the gluttony of the engine and stowing emissions in strict environmental standards. Even on relatively inexpensive models, devices for regulating the gas distribution phases and valve lift heights, intake paths of variable lengths are becoming more and more widespread. At low speeds, the mixture goes a long way, at high speeds it goes a short way. This allows you to increase power and torque over the entire rev range without burning excess fuel. Electric, rather than mechanical drives of mounted units, such as a water pump, freeing the engine from an “unproductive” load contribute to efficiency.

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Toyota RAV4 is offered with three engines. The latest 2.2-liter diesel particulate filter delivers 130 kW / 177 hp. at 3600 rpm The moment on the rear wheels goes through an electronically controlled multi-plate clutch.

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At Mazda Sasso, a 1-liter 3-cylinder engine with direct injection and turbocharging. The gearbox is a 6-speed sequential shift. No other data of a nice prototype has been given yet.

Obviously, gasoline and especially diesel engines still have reserves for improvement. But even if we believe the optimists who claim that the Earth’s bowels contain huge deposits of black gold, it is obvious that we, consumers, will pay for their search and development. Therefore, the cost of motor fuel is unlikely to decrease. And if you listen to the pessimists, then …

One of the main events of the IAA-2005 Frankfurt exhibition, unlike others, was not realized, however, in metal, but very important: Daimler-Chrysler, BMW, General Motors and Volkswagen intend to work together on hybrid cars. The Americans and Europeans, as stated in the press release, are not at all satisfied with the advanced positions of the Japanese in "hybrid construction."

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Almost all elements, including hydrogen-powered cylinders based on the Mercedes-Benz A-Class, are located under the floor. Under the hood - an electric motor with a power of 65 kW / 87 hp Sixty of these cars are already driving along the roads of three continents and are driving, as the company claims, drivers and passengers into the future.

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The family of four-wheel drive BMW - replenishment. The xDrive transmission on the 3 Series machines is similar in design to the familiar X3 and X5 models: the electronics distribute the moment redistribution along the axes.

And the first step has already been taken by Audi. The new Q7 all-terrain vehicle was shown, including with an electric motor that works in tandem with a gasoline. While this is a prototype, but made clearly not to replenish the collection of concepts of the company museum in Ingolstadt. Hybrid power plants, which almost all large companies boasted, are not the only alternative to the traditional, as the Germans say, Otto and Diesel engines. A rare stand did without the so-called bi-fuel machines - working, in addition to gasoline, using natural gas or alcohol. They are usually serial: sales of such models in Europe are growing.

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