Category: New cars

Club "Twelve Cylinders"

2023

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Video: Club "Twelve Cylinders"
Video: Отч. концерт Танцкласса - 7. Twelve Cylinders (Balboa) 2023, February
Club "Twelve Cylinders"
Club "Twelve Cylinders"
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In the elite community, various subgroups stand out. So units with 12 cylinders can be parted at different angles.

NAMES OWN

We are talking about two Italian companies - Ferrari and Lamborghini and the British company Aston-Martin. However, for the British, 12-cylinder engines are assembled in Cologne at the Ford factory, which has owned the English brand since 1987. Engines with heads and cylinder blocks made of aluminum alloy are produced in two versions, which differ in the shape of the combustion chamber and in the calibrations of the control unit - the 450-horsepower unit is designed for the DB9 model, and the more powerful one is installed on the V12 Wankwish.

As with most V12 engines, Aston-Martin engines have two rows of six cylinders each, located at an angle of 60 °. This design is perfectly balanced - there are no harmful forces and moments of the first and second orders arising from the movement of parts of the crank mechanism, therefore, vibration and noise are reduced.

Ferrari is an exception to the rule. The camber angle of engines from Maranello is traditionally 65 °. Under the hood of the new Scalletti model is a modernized unit of its predecessor, the Ferrari-575M Maranello. Italian motorists managed to drive an additional 25 “horses” into the same working volume. The gain was obtained by optimizing the shape of the combustion chamber - the compression ratio increased from 11 to 11.2. In addition, it was necessary to conjure over the inlet pipe, to change the geometry and volume of the exhaust tract.

But the main one in the family is the engine of the exclusive Ferrari Enzo. The six-liter engine with the factory designation F140 is the most powerful not only in the model range, but also among all serial 12-cylinder units. Perhaps he leads in another nomination - the specific gravity (the ratio of engine mass to power) is only 0.48 kg / kW. In pursuit of excellent dynamic characteristics, Ferrari first installed hydraulic camshafts for all camshafts (four of them) to control the valve timing. In order to achieve better filling of the cylinders, the length of the intake ducts also varies depending on the crankshaft speed: at low and high revolutions the air flows along a short path, and at medium speeds the extendable section “increases” the pipeline by 90 mm.

Another “Italian” is from Bologna. The 12-cylinder Lamborghini-Mursielago engine is also endowed with good data. One of the highlights is the VACS (Variable Air-flow Cooling System) device, which regulates the air supply for cooling the engine. Moving dampers are mounted in the huge air intakes in front of the rear wheels. In normal mode, they are covered, which has a beneficial effect on aerodynamics and dynamic performance. If the coolant temperature is close to critical, the electronic unit instructs the actuators to rotate the flaps.

Recently, the Lamborghini brand belongs to Audi, which produces its own 12-cylinder engine. It is possible that the following engines for powerful coupes from Bologna will be based on the German unit.

GERMAN ORIGINALS

Motorists Audi, or rather, the concern Volkswagen, often surprise with non-standard technical solutions. A dozen cylinders are inscribed in the letter W - two narrow V-shaped “sixes” are combined at an angle of 72 °. The unit is only 513 mm long and 690 mm wide claims to be the most compact among 12-cylinder ones. The engine can be placed under the hoods of the Audi A8 and Volkswagen Phaeton (cars are made on the same platform), even in combination with an all-wheel drive transmission.

The team led by Ferdinand Piech sought to make the motor not only compact, but also light. For the manufacture of the main parts used aluminum and magnesium alloys. However, their competing colleagues, including those from the Daimler-Chrysler concern, also studied metal science diligently …

The cylinder heads of the Mercedes are also cast from magnesium. But unlike other brands, 12-cylinder engines with a three-beam star cost three, not four valves per cylinder. According to company specialists, such a design has less heat loss at the outlet, respectively, the converter warms up faster and starts to work efficiently. In addition, a three-valve circuit made it possible to place two candles in the combustion chamber. By the way, the engine control system itself determines the misfire and, in order not to destroy the converter, cuts off the supply of gasoline to the cylinder with a non-working spark plug.

The niche of the most circulating V12 engines is occupied by another eminent German manufacturer - BMW. So far, only its engines with a dozen cylinders are equipped with direct fuel injection in order to achieve the best power characteristics, favorable economic and environmental indicators. Most likely, sooner or later other manufacturers will also switch to this principle of fuel supply. Another mandatory attribute of gasoline engines, including 12-cylinder ones, will be boost. On the current Bavarian V12, it is not yet available, but at the Mercedes it appeared in the latest generation of engines. Draw conclusions!

Chic

DERIVATIVES

Some companies that lost their independence were crushed by powerful German concerns, which were discussed above. So, a B12 engine is installed on the Bentley Continental GT. Guess where it came from?

True, the unit cannot be called completely borrowed. The developers were faced with the task of increasing capacity. The configuration and engine size were saved, and in order to obtain the desired performance, two turbochargers and radiators were installed to cool the air driven into the cylinders. The compression ratio was reduced by installing pistons specially designed for this model. In addition, the intake and exhaust pipelines were changed in order to fully realize the capabilities of the modernized unit and endow it with a suitable voice.

Under the hood of the exclusive Maybach (the brand was revived by the Daimler-Chrysler concern), the engine, based on the design of the Mercedes V12 motor, rumbles in a bass rumble. The motorists managed to get an increase in power and torque by increasing the boost pressure from 1 to 1.3 bar and adjusting the control program.

Of the court tuners, AMG is the closest to Mercedes. Experts boost the serial 12-cylinder engine for the expensive S65 sedans and the CL65 coupe. The aluminum block is bored to 82.6 mm, a modified crankshaft is installed, which increases the piston stroke by 6 mm. In bed, camshafts with other cams are placed on the head of the unit to change the lift height of the intake valves. In addition, boost pressure is raised to 1.5 bar using turbochargers with larger impellers. And here is the result: 1000 N.m - perhaps the highest torque among 12-cylinder engines.

AMG leads in another category. The engine of the small-scale sports car Pagani-Sonda S7.3 (ЗР, 2004, No. 11) is the largest in terms of volume V12. But Mercedes engines also boost other firms, for example Brabus (ZR, 2003, No. 8).

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