HISTORY OF ONE CAREER
ALEXEY VOROBYOV-SHOES, MIKHAIL KOLODOCHKIN
His career began giddy - like a schoolboy who was immediately admitted to Moscow State University from the eighth grade, where he defended his thesis a couple of years later. But then suddenly something stuck …
Those who remember the era of scarcity still respect the battery. It was by definition impossible to go and just buy it - first hand over the old one at the place of registration! Therefore, when the next issue of the popular magazine for inventors came out with the loud slogan “Next step - remove the battery!”, Our man broke through - God, you heard!
The idea was simple: they say, batteries are heavy, environmentally harmful, they are afraid of everything, they do not live long … Whether it is a capacitor: almost eternal, all-weather, with a little scarlet internal resistance - any current can easily give out, even in three shifts. So, it is worth stuffing it under the hood and connecting it in parallel to the battery, as a miracle will happen before your eyes. After all, even a "dead" battery will be able to slowly charge the beginner to a decent voltage - this is not for you to twist the starter! And with the turn of the ignition key, the energy accumulated in the capacitor joules begin to spin the starter briskly with a furious current that he has not seen for a while. If it doesn’t work right away, wait another minute: the next attempt will be as energetic … Therefore, instead of a regular battery, its reduced counterpart will be enough (to power the receiver in the parking lot …), and the capacitor will deal with starting issues.
The performance of the idea was obvious. If a thin stream of water flows from the faucet, then you won’t put out the fire, but if you put up a bucket and wait a little, you can organize a mini-waterfall … And when a stand appeared at VDNH, where the car’s engine was started using the “Krona” battery charging through all sorts of converters there is a capacitive block, then the people polls took up soldering irons. Skeptics with slide rule - say, count it first! - ignored. It soon became clear - in vain …
The fact is that in those days the most-scarce capacitor had a capacity of about one farad - 1 F. Serial products were inferior by a hundred times at face value … And for our purposes it took five hundred farads, and better - a thousand (1000 F) ! Of course, the craftsmen immediately remembered that the energy of the capacitor is proportional to the square of the voltage: you can "increase the volts" and - literally - get out. But there were no hunters to transfer the “Lada” from 12 volts to 300–400: switch to a makeshift starter - no, thank you …
And where are the defense technologies that we love to refer to? Imagine, searched - and found!
The first supercapacitors ("supercaps") were originally developed for completely different purposes: in one terribly secret installation, it was necessary to create a powerful spark discharge … And they provided the whole world - then the production cost was neglected. But then perestroika set its emphasis - similar products from Troitsk and Moscow, Kursk and Pskov began to appear steadily at exhibitions … Moreover, the army became seriously interested in “supercaps”! However, it was at this stage that their career again cracked. At first it turned out that it was impossible to reduce the capacity of a regular battery! A modern car devours so many amperes that at idle no generator can feed it alone. We drove up to a traffic light or, even worse, got stuck in traffic - keep in mind: headlights, "music", air conditioning suck energy from the battery. At the same time, there’s no use from the capacitor - here you need not a flash of enthusiasm, but hard painstaking work … So it turns out that, all things being equal, a battery with a large capacity is much preferable - in the same plug it will last longer without recharging.
The second broken step on the career ladder is still price. The cost of each kilo-joule of energy contained in the “supercap” from the Moscow company “TechnoKor” is such that the final price in terms of the needs of “Ural-375” or KamAZ exceeds 500 dollars. Products from Troitsk are more advanced, but much more expensive! Um …
Hopes for the "all-weather" capacitors also collapsed - the cold and they do not like. In addition, sometimes their proximity can accelerate the death of the battery - instead of recharging it in time, the happy owner will happily pump out the last pendants … This will result in the battery simply freezing and cracking in the cold. And if you recall that for normal cars the start-up problem today has generally lost its relevance, then it’s just right to put a bold cross on a once-sparkling career …
But not so sad. If the army finally says “yes!”, The “supercaps” have chances for mass survival. Now, the units are checking the suitability of capacitors in the “control operation scale” - “supercaps” drive KamAZ and UAZ vehicles, ZILs and “Urals”, on BETs and various armored vehicles. It is curious that it is not so much an electrician who is tested as a mechanic - how to fix it, where and all that. Indeed, in the case, whatever one may say, there is a benefit from them - for those who wish, we suggest considering rice. 1. The simplified scheme of the "supercap" is shown in Fig. 2.
Anticipating the questions of the owners of cars - they say, but will it be good for us? - We answer firmly: “Yes!” The most visual aid for demonstrating capacitor talents is … a cart with “supercaps” - they are already being used in the army. Drive her to the car with a "dead" battery, connect to the terminals and wait a minute or two. Everything - you can let it go! No batteries, no transformers, no 220 volt sockets … Just be careful when connecting a discharged capacitor to a battery - it’s better to do this, say, through a light bulb. A spark will slip so that trouble is possible …
By the way, at all times, many Russian careers have continued successfully abroad … It is known that the Russian "supercaps" are already being delivered to Germany and Canada - the truckers there who were interested in the reliable start of the engines showed increased interest. Similar products, of course, are produced abroad, but they are used in a different way. Hybrid cars and pilot-operated hydrogen cars with fuel cells are becoming increasingly popular there. In the first case, it is necessary to quickly store somewhere the energy that the motor-generator gives when braking the engine. The currents here reach a very significant amount (especially if they brake sharply) - the battery will not pull. And if he pulls, then his plates will soon begin to crumble. On the other hand, with a sharp acceleration, the same motor-generator requires the stored energy back and all at once. Then he is able to significantly improve the dynamics of acceleration, favoring a gasoline colleague. And in the “stop and go” mode in city traffic jams, the hybrid completely turns into an electric car, in which charge-discharge cycles are repeated countless times. That is why the specialists of Siemens VDO, for example, see great prospects for automotive "supercaps" in the next four to five years.
One specific example is the BMW X5 hybrid concept introduced last year. In it, an electric motor installed between the internal combustion engine and the gearbox brings the total torque "on the bottoms" to … 1000 N.m! Acceleration is just fantastic. It is no accident that the project is called “Effective Dynamics”. Moreover, in normal modes, a car is 15% more economical than a gasoline donor. Of course, it was not without supercapacitors - the block diagram of the “capacitor beemvashki” is presented in Fig. 3. With regard to fuel cell vehicles, the problem here solved with the help of “supercaps” is that the on-board mini-power station, having sufficient power, cannot deliver significant currents to the load for frisky acceleration. This is where the capacitor buffer is needed. Researchers at the Swiss Institute, Paul Scherer, presented a hydrogen car at the World Environmental Forum in Johannesburg, which consumes 40% less energy than its gasoline counterpart. The Volkswagen Bor was the donor, and supercapacitors became the energy storage devices in it. In terms of gasoline, the concept showed fuel consumption in the European combined cycle of only 5.2 l / 100 km, while the classic "Bora 1.6" it is 8.5 liters. And this despite the fact that the mass of the hydrogen car was 500 kg more! Supercapacitors markedly improved dynamics during acceleration and on the rise. There are similar solutions in other hydrogen cars, such as the Honda FCX-V3.