Category: New cars

Spiral Of Evolution

2023

Table of contents:

Video: Spiral Of Evolution

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: The Grand Model Of Psychological Evolution - Clare Graves & Spiral Dynamics 2023, January
Spiral Of Evolution
Spiral Of Evolution
Anonim

FROM PAST SCREW AND NUT

The tool and technology, perhaps, best illustrate the level of development of society, because the finished product is only their derivative, sometimes hiding many manufacturing secrets. As far back as the century before last, sizes were taken to the nearest micron, mechanical “grinders” and semi-automatic soldering irons were used. Read about this and much more in our new section.

SCREW FALLS FROM SKY?

The appearance of a screw on Earth, as well as wheels, remains a mystery. The oldest products sometimes surpass later designs in precision manufacturing. Perhaps the most astounding find was made in 1865 in one of the mines of Nevada (USA). A piece of feldspar, which archaeologists estimate is 21 million years old, has been hidden by a rusty steel screw about two inches long; the profile of its thread is clearly imprinted on the mineral. Perhaps this mystery was inherited from a previous civilization or came from the depths of the Universe!

However, on our planet there are plenty of natural helix lines: a snail shell, a winding vine trunk, an ivy stem. Therefore, it is not surprising that the screw was opened in many countries several times. In European history, Arkhtas Tarentiysky is considered to be his discoverer - a philosopher, mathematician and mechanic who lived in the 4th-5th centuries BC. An important milestone in history was the Archimedean screw, which has survived almost unchanged to this day. A flat spiral (auger) enclosed in a pipe made it possible to pump water to irrigate the fields. After two thousand years, this invention is still in demand by mankind in drills, pumps, conveyors.

By the 1st century BC, a wooden screw was widely used on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. He mainly worked in the press - for the production of wine, olive oil or squeezing clothes. Recently, during excavations, Pompeii found quite elegant medical instruments of the time with steel screws (they are stored in the American National Historical Museum). The technology of their manufacture is not entirely clear.

In the Middle Ages, screws were made very primitively. The master wound a strip of paper on the rod or marked the thread on the eye, and then sawed it with a file. So did the nut. Sometimes its role was played by a sleeve with pins. The copier proposed by da Vinci reproduced the profile of the reference screw (Fig. 1), which coaxially fastened to the workpiece. Accurate descriptions of the device were not preserved. But the sketch of the screw-cutting machine, unfortunately not appreciated by the descendants, was preserved. More than 200 years passed before it was rediscovered by the Russian mechanic A.K. Nartov.

RUSSIANS ARE COMING

Image
Image

Not appreciating the caliper and automatic feeding, the masters of the Renaissance came up with threading combs - these are plates with a distance between the cutters equal to the pitch of the screw. They were pressed against a rotating rod, advancing along the thread. Metal screws were also made like this: a wire of the desired cross section was wound onto the rod and soldered to the rod, then the same wire was laid in gaps, but not so tightly, it was twisted from the rod and soldered into the sleeve - a nut was obtained (photo 1).

They also cut the thread with the help of primitive taps, which pressed more than they cut. Unified standards for threads did not exist, so the new screw and nut were tied with twine so as not to confuse different-sized fasteners.

The first attempt to standardize threads was made by da Vinci, proposing to set the pitch of the screw equal to a quarter of its small diameter. But in artisanal conditions they could not achieve uniformity. The era of screw cutting machines began in the middle of the XVIII century, with the designs of the associate of Peter I A.K. Nartova. Russian lathes with copiers caused amazement among Europeans. In 1797, a similar machine, but driven by a steam engine, was designed by the Englishman Henry Maudsley.

HALF DOGS FOR A HORSE

Image
Image
Image
Image

One hundred years ago, the word "die" did not mean exactly the tool that is used today. It consisted of two interchangeable, extendable cutters inserted into a clip (photo 2) or into a screw die (photo 4). Whole, round “dies” were called lehrki. Threaded boards were also common (photo 3). In screw closures, the thread profile could be pushed harder by screwing in the stop screw, and it was easier to start the thread - with a sliding tool, the lead-in cone was dispensed with. A screwdriver is also convenient when repairing a torn thread: you can edit it from the far edge - this will not work with a modern die.

Image
Image

Instrument prices were not just high - sky-high. Judge for yourself: according to the catalog of Rasteryaev, the supplier of the court of His Imperial Majesty, at the beginning of the 20th century an English threaded board cost from 2 to 6 rubles (photo 3), a set of American dies and taps (photo 2) - 16–37 rubles, and a large adjustable screwdriver (photo 4) - 110 rubles. For comparison, a five-walled house in the Nizhny Novgorod province cost about 120 rubles, a good horse - 20-30 rubles, and lunch in Moscow was possible for 3 kopecks. The salary of an unskilled worker was 25 rubles a month, of a highly skilled worker - 50–70 rubles.

DISAPPEARING SCREW

The latest history of the screw promises an equally interesting continuation. In 2002, Mitsubishi developed a polymer screw with a memory effect: when heated, it smoothes out the thread and takes the form of a rod. Therefore, it is easy to remove without a screwdriver, which significantly speeds up the repair of various household appliances, mobile phones, computers. The smoothing temperature will be selected individually for each product. Start production of "smart screws" plan this year.

Popular by topic

New

Editor'S Choice
  • Winter Launch: How To Save Battery
    2023

    Tips of a specialist in batteries: how to “light up” correctly, how to protect the battery from discharging, whether it is possible to replace the battery yourself

  • "Parkman" Is The Superhero Of Our Time
    2023

    "Parkman's Syndrome" showed that paid evacuation has become a bone of contention. While deputies are trying to prove that the AMPP’s actions are illegal, citizens are buying anti-tow trucks

  • Mazda CX-3: The New Crossover
    2023

    Mazda CX-3: world premiere of compact crossover in Los Angeles. Report and photos of Maxim Kadakov from the closed preview of the car

  • Life In An Era Of Change
    2023

    How much are you willing to pay for peace of mind? And for certainty in life? And how much does information about where your favorite toy is located, such as a car, ATV, jet ski or snowmobile, cost?

  • Four-wheel Drive Transmission With Haldex V Clutch: Fifth Rear
    2023

    What's new in Skoda all-wheel drive design with the advent of the fifth-generation Haldex electronically controlled multi-plate clutch

  • AvtoVAZ Monopolized The Market Of Station Wagons
    2023

    The popularity of station wagons, previously underestimated by Russian motorists, is growing. Three quarters of sales in this sector are owned by AvtoVAZ

Best reviews for the week
Popular for the day