Category: New cars

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Twice Green
Twice Green


TRUCK: Volvo FH16


Nicholas Mordovtsev. PHOTO: Volvo FIRM

By tradition, ZR journalists participate in many motor rallies. The expedition of Our Brand barely started in Vladivostok when we were invited to a Volvo truck demo tour of the cities of Siberia and the Urals. There, where there are representative offices and service stations Volvo Trucks. Ufa, Yekaterinburg, Novokuznetsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk. Of the four vehicles, two - the FM12 dump truck and the FH12 truck tractor were assembled in Zelenograd (ЗР, 2003, No. 11), the FL6 van became the third, and the “purebred Swede” was the big green “raisin” of the run, the top model of the concern was Volvo-FH16 ". This year their deliveries to Russia are just beginning, and there was a great temptation to check the flagship on the highway.

Loyalty to size

After the modernization of the D12 engine, the main engine for large Volvo engines (we recall that these diesels are also used on boats, yachts and other vessels), the replacement of the veteran D10 with the D9A in the production line reached the 16-liter engine. The former, also in-line "six" with a turbocharger and intercooler, was released until the fall of 2001. Structurally, the “newcomer” is a 4-liter D12D with a veteran dimension: cylinder diameter 144 mm, piston stroke 165. The camshaft, which controls 24 valves and six pump nozzles, moved to the head for the sake of stiffness, only driven from the flywheel through the gear cascade. So in the cabin it is quieter, and it is easier to select 100-kilowatt power for superstructure units. (Recall, a similar scheme, only without power take-off, has been used at KamAZ since the mid-70s.)

By tuning the “brains” of the engine, the cyclic supply of electronically controlled pump nozzles and the performance of the turbocharger, a power of 550 or 610 liters is obtained. with. At the same (2000 kgf / cm2) injection pressure, different nozzles were used. The weaker motor got the “five-hole” ones, the powerful one with six holes. Every drop of diesel fuel is taken into account - the specific consumption is only 189 g / kWh. For Russia, cars are equipped with coarse fuel filters with electric heating. Of course, summer is not the best time to check them out, but on our commercial diesel fuel all the way along the route the cars did not even sneeze. There is no black smoke on the drafts - the requirements of Euro III are not met in words. Not without reason, apparently, the car is painted green.

Volvo diesels are famous for their resource under two million kilometers. For a beginner, of course, they did not lower the bar. Now on all engines, starting with D9A, there are composite pistons with steel bottoms, bosses and aluminum skirts - the key to the durability of the cylinder-piston group. A water-oil heat exchanger is responsible for the quality and stability of the lubricant, three filters - two full-flow and one bypass, bypass. In case of clogging of two main, but more often during cold start, oil filtered through it enters the main line. By the way, it is in the system of 42 liters, so replacement is provided for after 90 thousand km. But this is on the European motorways, we have to do this operation twice as often during construction and urban transportation and sulfur dioxide.

Achilles and the tortoise

Depending on the “brain” setting of the engine, not only the power changes, but also the torque - 2500 and 2800 N.m, however, the transmission of the cars is almost the same. The clutch is only double-disc with a diameter of 394 mm, a pull type with a diaphragm spring and an air booster.

In the West, long ago SAE standardized the mounting dimensions of gearboxes. On large machines, this is SAE-1: you can put a ZF box on any one, or, for example, the American Eaton. This is for KamAZ, YaMZ and ZIL, all sizes are different - not otherwise, to confuse a potential enemy. But Volvo doesn’t need someone else’s, boxes and bridges for the heavy series are made by themselves.

For the new FH16 truck, we developed a VT2814B gearbox with direct or overdrive, taking as a basis our VT2514B (the numbers in the designation: 28 and 25 are the engine torque in N.m divided by 100; 14 is the number of gears). This is a fully synchronized unit with a three-stage main gearbox, a dual-band planetary gear and a divider with a built-in “slow turtle” gear.

The main gearbox, the “turtle” and the reverse gear control the lever through the cables, a demultiplier and a divider - an electro-pneumatic drive with two keys. The pressure lubrication system required for such gearboxes is equipped with a full-flow filter. An optional oil temperature sensor, an oil-water heat exchanger, an emergency power steering pump, a power take-off, and, of course, a hydraulic transmission retarder are installed for heavy-duty operation. Known by Volvo-FH12, the electronically-controlled I-shift manual gearbox has not yet grown to the torque of a 16-liter engine - everything is ahead.

The wheel formula of the new FH16 flexibly takes into account operating conditions. A 4x4 truck is enough for a weekly truck, 6x2 for a trunk truck, and 6x4 for a timber truck, but there will be no all-wheel drive modifications. Drive axles are similar to FH12 and are divided by load and type of final drive.

The smallest gear ratio for single hypoid axles of low loader tractors with wide-profile tires is only 2.1, and the largest is 7.21 for road trains with a gross weight of 100 tons. Of course, such a hero has bridges with hub planetary gearboxes and all kinds of locks.



An averaged, albeit an exhibition copy was sent to the demo tour, and after all, there are already many modifications of the FH16. They offer three chassis heights: 1000, 900 and 850 mm. The wheelbase options are even more diverse. For tractors 4x2 - 3500, 3600, 3700 and 3800 mm; 6x4 - 3050, 3200, 3400 and 3600 mm, and the longest, of course, cargo trucks. Here the base reaches 6500 mm. Favorite Scandinavians "lazy" bridges with a 6x2 scheme are placed in front of the driving axle or behind it. At the rear, they are made hoisting and equipped with steering - hydraulic or conventional mechanics, otherwise such a crocodile will quickly erase the tires to the cord when turning.

Suspension to choose from: fully pneumatic, combined - front parabolic springs, rear - air bags or fully spring for 6x4 and 8x4 cars. There is one peculiarity of gear axles with spring balancer suspension: only drum brakes with S-shaped expanding fists are installed on them, which are already disappearing in the West. Disc brakes - on axles with air suspension: these were exactly on our FH16.

The mountains in the South Urals are not very high, but here the abilities of the green Volvo were manifested. On the rises from the road trains, more or less comparable with Volvo are superMAZs with 400-horsepower YaMZ-7511. But the small road train turned out to be the absolute leader - the elderly Zhiguli - the Six with a high tented trailer, loaded with some boxes in the cabin. Still - 40 "horses" per ton of gross weight. But on the slopes of the FH16 there really are no equal.

Domestic trucks leave the mountains at a slightly higher speed than they climb on them, and still there is the smell of burnt pads above the track. Volvo's disc brakes have an undeniable advantage, but the most important thing is the interaction of a mountain brake, a compression motor and a hydraulic transmission retarder.

When the lever of the additional brake system is in the “automatic” position, it will work first of all. If the efficiency of almost 500 kW is not enough, when the pedal is pressed further, the wheel disk mechanisms come into operation, holding the loaded road train tenaciously on the descent. (They say that the drawings of the domestic retarder are gathering dust for years on the yards of YaMZ engineers …)

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