Today, Russia is one of the most dynamic and fastest growing automobile markets in the world. And not by chance. It was necessary to start from the level “below the baseboard”, when the car for the overwhelming part of the population was an unattainable dream. And then suddenly - such opportunities …
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian passenger car fleet grew by more than 2.5 times - up to 23.4 million units in 2004. Its growth rate averaged over 12% per year. For comparison: in the countries of Eastern Europe - 5.4%, and Western - only 2%.
As a result of such a “big leap,” a very heterogeneous regional picture of Russia's motorization has developed. In some regions, a level has been reached that the all-Russian indicator will reach, God forbid, only by 2010: Moscow - 286 cars per 1000 people, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - 247, Kaliningrad Region - 235, Kamchatka Region - 231. Pretty close to these Moscow region - 214 and St. Petersburg - 215. The national average is much lower: 163 cars per 1000 people (in the poor countries of Eastern Europe there are about 300 cars, in Western - more than 420).
With the growth of the passenger car fleet in Russia, its structure also changed, primarily due to the increase in the number of imported cars. The numbers here are impressive. In 1993, according to the traffic police, only 300 thousand foreign cars were registered in Russia (excluding ZAZ products, which by that time had ended up abroad), or 2.8% of the fleet. But by the end of 2003, this figure increased to 4.3 million cars (or 19.1%). The average annual growth rate of the fleet of foreign cars over the past five years is 10%, in the domestic segment - 4%.
In the Russian fleet of foreign cars, the most popular are German and Japanese cars: 28 and 36%, respectively. The share of Ukrainian cars is gradually decreasing and at the beginning of 2004 amounted to 21% of the fleet of foreign cars. Only 400 (!) Cars are behind Toyota, which accounts for 4.8% of the Russian fleet (20% of the fleet of imported cars) - now it occupies an honorable 5th place, between ZAZ and UAZ. Anyway, Toyota in terms of sales of its new cars in Russia has reached record heights. We can safely assume that already in 2004 it will move to 4th place, ahead of ZAZ.
Alas, our fleet cannot be called young. According to the traffic police, 71% of cars in Russia are older than 7 years, and almost 50% are more than 10 years old. In the regional context, Moscow has the “youngest” indicators (here the share of new cars reaches 23%), Nenets Autonomous Okrug (25%), Tatarstan (22%), Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (23%), Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (20%). The most “old” is the Far Eastern Federal District: its fleet is mainly right-hand drive cars; the share of new cars here does not exceed 2%.
Since until recently mainly used foreign cars were imported into Russia, it is typical for most regions: the higher the share of foreign cars in it, the more old the park it has.
WHAT IS CHANGING
The structure of the park changes from year to year. The number of ZAZ and Tavria cars is decreasing (over 10 years - by 500 thousand, to 1.16 million units), the share of “real” foreign cars is gradually growing. In 2003, an increase in the fleet of cars for the first time in 10 years was achieved by 57% at the expense of foreign cars (minus ZAZ vehicles). It is significant in this connection that in Moscow over the past 5 years, growth has been mainly due to foreign cars. In 2003, the capital recorded (for the first time) a decrease in the fleet of domestic cars - by 1.1%. At the same time, the increase in the number of foreign cars reached then 15.7%.
WHOSE SHARES ARE MORE
The distribution of passenger cars in federal districts is proportional to the population. 72.5% of all cars are registered in the European part of Russia (to the Urals). At the same time, it accounts for 67.1% of the Russian fleet of foreign cars. In the border regions - the Far Eastern and Northwestern Federal Districts - the highest share of foreign cars, respectively, 67 and 37%. They make up more than 81% of the car fleet of the Kaliningrad region and Primorsky Territory.
A small number of foreign cars are registered in the cradle of domestic auto building - the Volga region (only 12%), but the least of them are in the Ulyanovsk and Samara regions (5.9 and 8.2% respectively) and the Republic of Tatarstan (9.3%).
It is noteworthy that, in absolute terms, the fleet of foreign cars of the Far Eastern Federal District (980 thousand cars) takes the second place in Russia, second only to the Central (1.7 million cars) and slightly ahead of the North-West (850 thousand), and in Central than 50% formed at the expense of Moscow and the region. They, in turn, account for 71% of the fleet of foreign cars in the region.
The share of right-hand drive cars at the end of 2003 amounted to about 28% of all foreign cars (excluding ZAZ) or 1.18 million units. For obvious reasons, 89% of this park falls on the Far Eastern and Siberian Federal Districts. The right-hand drive share here is 95 and 75%, respectively. In the European part of Russia (before the Urals), this figure is on average about 2%. Note that the growth rate of the right-hand drive fleet is significantly behind the left-hand drive and there is a steady tendency to reduce the share of used cars from Japan. The only exception was the year 2002, when the number of right-hand drive cars increased by 21% against 12% of left-hand drive cars, which was the result of a rush of imported second-hand cars in anticipation of an increase in duties on them.