HEADLIGHTS, LAMPS, FLASHLIGHTS
Buying, make no mistake
And again on our pages is another review of electrical equipment prepared by Anton UTKIN.
In previous devices of power supply systems, ignition, start-up and switching fittings were considered. Today we are talking about automotive lighting.
Groups: 3711 - “Headlights”; 3712 - “Sidelights and front direction indicators”; 3713 - "Lamp holders"; 3714 - "Plafonds"; 3715 - "Portable and engine compartment lamps"; 3716 - "Taillights"; 3717 - “License plate light”; 3726 - "Direction indicators"; 3731 - “Dimension indicators” and 3743 - “Fog lights”.
Lighting and light-signal fixtures, manufactured and manufactured earlier in the territory of the former USSR, can carry the emblems of five factories. The largest and oldest is Krasny Oktyabr (now Avtosvet, Kirzhach, Vladimir Region). The second largest is VZOA (now OSVAR, Vyazniki, Vladimir Region). A small assortment of taillights and sidelights for VAZ cars is made by DAAZ (Dimitrovgrad, Ulyanovsk Region), known for its carburetors. Lighting equipment from AEA (Sutiski village, Vinnytsia region) and OZATE (Vladikavkaz) is much less likely to come across - mainly their products are used for agricultural machinery and motorcycles. One of the few exceptions is the Tavria taillights with the AEA emblem.
Of the imported lighting, we have the most famous products of the German company "FER" (FER), which since 1969 supplied headlights to AZLK, and since 1976 to the RAF. The Czech block headlights, which the former PAL association supplied for several years with the Tavria, still come in spare parts. Now the headlights from the Czech Republic put on a part of the produced VAZ 2110. Other foreign manufacturers of lighting equipment are most often represented on our market with accessories in the form of additional and fog lights, and not always of proper quality (see ЗР, 1997, No. 9).
Since the operation of lighting devices directly affects traffic safety, manufacturers are required to ensure their compliance with the requirements of state and international standards. Our country is a member of the Inland Transport Committee of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and has the right to assign an international approval mark to vehicle components and parts. The number of the country that approved the conformity of this device is put in a circle next to the letter "E". For example, 2 - France, 5 - Sweden, 22 - Russia, etc. By the way, most of the devices manufactured by us received homologation (official approval) in western lighting laboratories.
Interchangeability by make and model of cars for lighting equipment is not typical, since the novelty of the appearance of a particular model usually involves the use of its own original devices. On foreign cars, such interchangeability is practically excluded, and some cases of unification on domestic cars are given in table. 1. On the contrary, the most important element of lighting devices - lamps are the most unified parts in the global automotive industry. We’ll talk about them in more detail.
Lamps supplied to a complete set of lighting devices and spare parts are produced by specialized enterprises - electric lamp plants. The exceptions are perhaps only such multidisciplinary giants as the Bosch and General Electric, which produce both appliances and lamps for them.
According to experts, the quality of the lamps supplied to Avtosvet, OSVAR and retail, on a five-point scale can be estimated as follows: Philips (Philips, Holland) - 5; Osram (Osram, Germany) - 5; “Narva” (Narva, Germany) - 5; "Tungsram" (Tungsram, Hungary) - 5; “General Light” (General Light, Japan) - 5; “Tesla” (Tesla, Czech Republic) - 4; Ufa plant "Light" - 4; Saransk SPO "Lighting Engineering" - 4; Brest ELZ - 4; Serdobsky ELZ - 3. (Unfortunately, some part of domestically produced lamps is produced clandestinely and does not pass output control. The percentage of rejects in such “shadow” batches can be much higher than in the official ones.)
Unlike household electric bulbs (by the way, produced by the same factories), automobile ones work under conditions of shaking and vibration and, accordingly, have more durable spirals (they use tungsten of a different brand). Sockets with a round inch thread - a rarity on lamps for mobile equipment - spring-loaded cartridges or clamps are used here, eliminating the twisting or loosening of the lamp mount.
There are four types of lamps on domestic cars (see photo). Flanged - have a tight tolerance on the location of the spiral relative to the flange, which means that they can be placed exactly in the focus of the reflector of the optical element or at the desired distance from it. If the flange lamp is designed for a headlamp or a spotlight, then its high beam spiral is either compactly folded, as if approaching an ideal point source of light (lamp H4), or stretched along the optical axis of the reflector (lamp H1). If it is intended for rectangular fog lamps, then the spiral can be perpendicular to the optical axis (lamp H3).
Pin lamps - the most massive of the automotive. The pins on the cylindrical surface of the base can be located both symmetrically and with an offset of one of them. The pin is biased in height on dual-filament lamps to provide a specific lamp position in the lampholder. The offset pins are usually used on lamps with orange glass bulbs. This eliminates their interchangeability with conventional ones.
Double-basement (spotlight) lamps are used in interior lights for interior lighting - their shape makes it possible to make the device fairly flat, recessed into the upholstery panel. In addition, the "spotlights" with their long spirals are great for license plate lights.
And finally, the cheapest in the production of baseless lamps. Recently, they have been replacing lamps with a metal base with a power of up to 5 watts (abroad - and up to 21 watts). The role of the cap is performed by a plastic cartridge, the contacts of which are pressed to the conductors withdrawn from the lamp bulb.
In Russia, automobile lamps are usually designated in accordance with GOST 2023–75: “A” - automobile, “AMN” - automobile miniature, “ACG” - automobile quartz halogen. Then, nominal voltage and power are indicated in series, and then the development number. For example, A-12-21-2 - automobile 12-volt, 21-watt. The disadvantage of this marking is that the type of lamp is not encrypted in it, and the development number refers only to a specific model. Therefore, more and more began to apply the notation system according to the European standard ECE. It is characterized by the absence of voltage marking (there is no confusion, since the consumption spheres of lamps of different voltages usually do not intersect, in addition, each lamp also has an individual manufacturer's catalog number). Sometimes even power is not indicated, as, for example, in lamps for headlights H1-H7. But the type of lamp in design, mounting dimensions and purpose is clearly indicated. For example, miniature base lamps are designated with the letter "T"; larger, with a 15 mm socket - the letter "R"; even larger - “P”, etc. If the number in the marking indicates power, then the letter “W” is placed after it, and if it is not, then the number indicates the model number. If “W” is at the beginning of the marking, then the lamp is baseless, “H” indicates that it is halogen, and “Y” in front of the number means: the lamp has an orange bulb color. Lamps that are not homologated in Europe do not have ECE designations, while those intended for America are designated according to the ANSI standard.
The socles of electric lamps (and not just automobile ones), determining their mounting dimensions and interchangeability, are perhaps the most standardized technical products in the world, surpassing even firearms cartridges in the degree of unification. From time to time, new standard sizes of socles appear, but some have been used in almost all countries for several decades, such as, for example, pin 9- and 15 mm or threaded household electric lamps.
Socles are usually designated according to the international standard IEC. For example, the capital letter “P” at the beginning of the marking means that the lamp is flanged; "VA" - pin; "SV" - spotlight; "E" - with a threaded base; “W” - baseless, etc. An additional, third letter indicates a special design, for example, offset pins. The numbers indicate the main mounting size in millimeters, for example, the diameter of the cap or its flange, and for baseless lamps, the dimensions of the sides of the glass rectangle inserted into the cartridge. And finally, the lowercase letter at the end of the marking is the number of lamp contacts isolated from the base: “s” (single) - one; “D” (double) - two and “t” (triple) - three contacts. For example, the BAY 15d base is a pin, with a displacement of one of the pins in height, with a diameter of 15 mm, two-pin.
In our country, the base length in millimeters, for example, BA 9s / 14, is sometimes added to the international designation through a fraction, which, in principle, is optional - all the bases are standard. The former domestic marking of the cap according to GOST 2520-51 was, in general, similar to the current international one. For example, 2Sh-15A-1, where "2" is the number of isolated contacts of the base; "Ш" - type of socle (pin); "15" is the diameter of the cap; “A” - offset of one of the pins; “1” - design that does not affect the mounting dimensions.
The list of 12-volt lamps used on domestic cars (except obsolete) is given in table. 2, and some of them are shown in the figures.
A few words about lamps with orange bulbs. Their appearance is due to the fact that on many modern cars (see Table 2), the direction indicator lenses are made colorless (design requirements!). You can’t put a baseless colorless lamp in place of a regular orange lamp - the cartridge is different, and you can technically put a W5W baseless lamp in a colorless side repeater, but this is forbidden - according to GOST, orange light is provided for direction indicators. But the use of yellow lamps in headlamps (not to be confused with fog), adopted in some countries, is not provided by our GOST, although imported yellow lamps for headlights are on sale. It remains to add that the yellow (orange) lamps come in three types: with a varnish-painted bulb (domestic), with a yellow pigment inserted directly into the glass, and equipped with an additional yellow cap on top of the bulb.
Commercially available halogen lamps with a capacity of 100 watts or more in Europe are called "rally", they are intended for sports, and their use on ordinary cars is prohibited there. There are real monsters among them - with a power of 200/180 watts with such a dazzling effect of oncoming drivers that their use on public roads is generally unacceptable. (For the sale of such products, like, say, banned alarms in the West with the sirens, the Russian "free" market is very convenient.) By the way, the use of heavy-duty lamps will require a change in the wiring diagram - standard relays and wires are not designed for such loads. It should be noted that diffusers heated by powerful lamps - headlight glasses easily crack from splashes from puddles.
Finishing about the lamps, we can mention those that are not yet used on our cars: these are miniature halogen ones with a power of 5-21 watts. And the last word in automotive lighting is gas discharge lamps that have already appeared in the headlights of expensive foreign cars. They hardly heat up, they have high light output, but they need their own power supply, since they operate at a voltage of 85 V and are ignited by 5000 W pulses. The “lamp - power supply” kit costs several hundred dollars, so we cannot talk about their widespread use.
Manufacturers of lighting equipment also receive glass headlight diffusers from subcontractors (silicate glass cooking is a specialized chemical production located, as a rule, near sources of mineral raw materials and requiring large expenditures of energy). Now our monopolist in the production of headlight glasses is the Chernyatinsky Glass Factory (Bryansk Region), whose certified glasses are supplied to Avtosvet, OSVAR and spare parts. Their abundance on the market and low cost (12–25 thousand rubles) make fakes unlikely to protect the headlights with plexiglass or grilles: replacing cracked glass is a simple matter.
Plastic headlight lenses are found so far only on foreign cars. Light weight and shock resistance, simpler manufacturing technology - their advantages over silicate. And the known disadvantages of plastic - the appearance of micro-scratches and turbidity, are now successfully eliminated - the diffusers are coated with a solid silicone varnish.
In conclusion, we note that now there is no strict specialization of factories for certain lighting models - what one of them produces can master the other at any time. And for the consumer it does not matter where the device is made - in Kirzhach or in Vyazniki - the quality and prices are almost the same.
The optical elements of round headlights in accordance with the international standard are unified by the landing diameter. Seven-inch are used on VAZ 2101 (02, 013), Niva, IZH, ZAZ, LuAZ, UAZ, Volga cars (until 1996) and many trucks and buses; 5.5-inch - on the VAZ 2103 (06), export M-408 and M-412; ZAZ-965, "seagulls", foreign cars and in turning headlights of trucks. When choosing an element, one must take into account that each model is designed for a strictly defined lamp (R2, H4, H1, "American"), and most importantly - the purpose of the element (low and high beam, only high beam, spotlight without a diffuser, etc.). The price of any element is 15-25 thousand rubles.
Rectangular headlights and block headlights are the most expensive lighting products, especially imported ones. For example, a Czech headlight for a VAZ 2110 costs 450 thousand rubles, while a lamp made at Avtosvet costs 325 thousand. German (FER) for Moskvich-2140 and the RAF costs 90 thousand, and the same from OSVAR - 50. The Czech headlight for Tavria, which does not have Russian analogues, has to be bought for 380-420 thousand. The prices of some rectangular headlights of Russian production are given in table. one.
Fig. 1. Emblems of automobile lighting factories (from left to right):
"Autosvet", OSVAR, DAAZ, AEA
Fig. 2-7. Automobile lamps and their socles.
Types of lamps used in domestic cars:
a - flanged;
b - pin;